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山西历史沿革介绍

  山西,是中华民族的发祥地之一。在这片土地上,10万年前就有人类生息繁衍,西河度文化和丁村文化遗址表明,早在旧石器时代就已有了人类在这里繁衍生息。山西是唐国的领地。后来唐叔虞的儿子燮父因唐国临晋水,改国号为晋。春秋时,山西是五霸之一的晋国。战国时,瓜分了晋国的韩、赵、魏三国,与秦、楚、齐、燕并称为战国七雄。秦始皇统一中国后,在山西设有太原、上党、河东、雁门、代郡等五郡。到隋时,太原是黄河流域仅次于长安和洛阳的第三大城市。隋末 ,李渊父子起兵于太原 ,建都长安后,把太原尊为“北京”,意即“别都”。五代时期,后唐 、后晋 、后汉和北汉都是以山西为根据地起家。在中国封建社会期间,山西的地位举足轻重,而且由于其特殊的地理位置 ,越是乱世越是显得重要 ,谁拥有了山西,谁就可以称雄天下。所以,清人顾祖禹在《读史方舆纪要》中指出:天下形势,必有取于山西。金元时期,山西的经济、文化在中国北部居领先地位。明代时,设山西行中书省于太原,后改为承宣布政使司,统管山西五府三州。清代,开始称为山西。

  山西历史悠久,人文荟萃,拥有丰厚的历史文化遗产。迄今为止有文字记载的历史达三千年之久,素有“中国古代文化博物馆”之美称,还被誉为“华夏文明的摇篮”。“女娲补天”的传说就发生在山西。。我国上古时代的三个帝王尧、舜、禹均在山西南部建都,为“尧都平阳(今临汾市)”、“舜都蒲坂(今永济市)”、“禹都安邑(今夏县)”。春秋时期,晋文公重耳是春秋五霸之一。北魏时,大同(当时称平城)曾作为北魏的都城名重一时。隋朝末年,李渊父子起兵晋阳(今太原市),继而夺取长安,建立唐朝,后把太原定为大唐帝国的北都。元末明初,中原连年战乱,灾荒频繁,而山西尤其是晋南一带,经济繁荣,人口稠密,成为明初向外移民的主要地区。在长达半个世纪的时间内,山西曾向外移民十几次。洪洞县大槐树是当时一个主要移民站。全国不少地方流传的“问我祖先在何处,山西洪洞大槐树”,即由此而来。明清时期,晋商和山西票号的崛起,著称中外。

  传说中的中华民族的始祖黄帝、炎帝都曾把山西作为活动的主要地区。中国史前三大伟人尧、舜、禹,都曾在山西境内建都立业。中国历史上第一个奴隶制国家政权夏朝也建立在山西南部。商代,山西是商的主要统治区。周代,晋国由山西境内崛兴,晋文公曾为春秋五霸之一。秦、汉、魏、晋时期,山西无论在政治、军事、经济、文化等各个方面,都起着举足轻重的作用。南北朝时期,山西是北朝统治的中心地带,而且北魏曾以平城(今大同)为都,之后的东魏、北齐也曾以晋阳(今太原)为“别都”、“陪都”,这对促进山西的发展起了积极的作用。唐太宗李世民起兵太原,建立了大唐王朝,由此,山西被唐太宗认为是“龙兴”之地,一直把山西作为唐帝国的腹脏地区,封太原为唐王朝的“北都”、“北京”。有唐一代,山西一直以其特殊的地位和发达的经济、文化称著于世。到五代十国,山西仍然对中国北方的政治、军事形势,起着决定性的作用。宋辽时期,山西进一步繁荣,是中国北方经济、文化的主要发达地区。元代,全国共11个行省,山西与山东、河北,并称为元朝“腹地”,大同、平阳(今临汾)、太原三城则成为黄河流域的著名都会。当时山西商业的发达、经济的繁荣、文化的昌明,曾受到当时来中国旅行的意大利伟大旅行家马可•波罗的盛赞。明代,山西的商业迅猛发展,曾领全国之先。

  中国进入半殖民地半封建社会以后,山西的经济、文化发展受到严重破坏。但是,山西人民英勇地抗击了外敌的侵略。特别是抗日战争和解放战争期间,山西人民进行了更加顽强的斗争,在三晋大地上谱写了无数可歌可泣的英雄故事,百团大战、平型关大捷、上党战役永垂青史。1949年4月,全省解放。9月,成立了山西省人民政府,从此揭开了山西社会主义革命和建设的历史新篇章。几十年来,山西人民为全国的社会主义建设事业做出为重大贡献。

  黄河流经山西,孕育了无数英雄豪杰、仁人志士。在中国的各个历史时期,山西曾涌现出许多政治家、军事家、科学家、文学家、历史学家。最著名的有春秋时期的霸主之一晋文公重耳,有中国唯一的女皇帝、唐代杰出的政治家武则天,有中国的“武圣”、三国时期名将关羽,有唐朝名相狄仁杰、裴度,有抗击匈奴而名垂青史的汉朝名将卫青、霍去病,有创立“制图六体”的西晋地图学家裴秀,有中国古代四大名著之一《三国演义》的作者罗贯中,有唐代著名诗人白居易、王勃、王之涣、王维、王昌龄,唐代著名的文学家、哲学家、政治改革家柳宗元,有金朝文学家、诗人元好问,有元曲四大家中的三位著名戏曲家关汉卿、白朴、郑光祖,有明末清初的思想家、文学家、医学家、书画家傅山,清末维新派扬泽秀以及戊戌六君子谭嗣同、刘光弟等。可以说,山西是人杰地灵,代不乏人。而其中晋商的足迹更是踏遍华夏、享誉全球。

  Shanxi, is one of Chinese nation's birthplaces. On this land, 100,000 years ago have the humanity to live the multiplication, the Siho culture and the Ding village cultural remains site indicated that as early as had the humanity in the paleolithic period to multiply in here live. Shanxi is the Tang Guo territory. Afterward the Tang Uncle Yu's son xie father because of the Tang country lin chin water, changed the dynasty name is the Jin. When Spring and Autumn Period, Shanxi is of a Jin five feudal princes. When Warring States, has carved up Jin's Han, Zhao, the Wei three countries, with Qin, Chu, uneven, the swallow and is called the Warring States seven male. After Chin Shihhuang unifies China, is equipped with Taiyuan in Shanxi, on the party, the east of the river, the wild goose gate, generation of county and so on five counties. When to Sui, Taiyuan is the Huanghe River valley is only inferior to Chang An and the Luoyang's third big city. Sui end, the Li Yuan fathers and sons dispatch troops into battle in Taiyuan, after founding a capital Chang An, reveres Taiyuan is “Beijing”, Italy namely “don't”. The Five Dynasties time, Later Tang Dynasty, the later Jin dynasty, Eastern Han Dynasty and the northern han are build up take Shanxi as the base. In China feudal society period, Shanxi's status is pivotal, moreover as a result of its special geographical position, more is the tumultuous times more is appears important, who had Shanxi, who can dominate an area the world. Therefore, clear person Gu Zuyu, in "Reads History Earth Summary" pointed out: The world situation, must have takes in Shanxi. The gold dollar time, Shanxi's economy, the culture classify the leading position north China. When Ming Dynasty, supposes the mountain to head west the secretariat in Taiyuan, latter changes receives announcement politics commissioner, manages Shanxi five government office three states. The Qing Dynasty, starts to be called Shanxi.   

  The Shanxi history is glorious, wealth or galaxy of talent, has the rich history cultural heritage. Until now has the history which the writing records to reach long time of the three millennium, was known as “China the Ancient civilization Museum” the laudatory name, but was also honored as “the China civilization cradle”. “Lady Wa overcomes nature” the fable occurs in Shanxi. . Our country antiquity time's three king Yao, Shun, yu founds a capital south Shanxi, is “the Yao Pingyang (now Linfen)”, “Shun Puban (now Yongji)”, “yu Anyi (this summer county)”. The Spring and Autumn Period time, the Jinwengong heavy ear is one of Spring and Autumn Period five feudal princes. When Northern Wei Dynasty, Datong (at that time called Pingcheng) once as Northern Wei Dynasty's capital city heavily for a while. The Sui Dynasty last years, the Li Yuan fathers and sons dispatch troops into battle Jinyang (now Taiyuan), subsequently captures Chang An, establishes the Tang Dynasty, latter decides as Taiyuan the Datang empire the north. The Yuan end beginning of Ming dynasty, the area south of Yellow River the chaos caused by war, the famine is successive years frequent, but south the Shanxi Jin area, the economic boom, the dense population, becomes the main area which particularly the beginning of Ming dynasty immigrates outward. In is the half century in the time, Shanxi once outward immigrated several times. The Hongtong County big Chinese scholartree was at that time a main immigration station. National many places spread “ask my ancestor in where, Shanxi Hongtong big Chinese scholartree”, namely from this. The Ming and Qing Dynasties time, the Jin business and Shanxi money shop's rising, is famous the Chinese and foreign.   

  In fable Chinese nation's first ancestor Yellow Emperor, Yan Di once took Shanxi active the main area. Chinese prehistoric three big extraordinary personality Yao, Shun, yu, once domestic founded a capital in Shanxi starts a career. In the Chinese history the first slavery state power Xia Dynasty also establishes south Shanxi. The Shang Dynasty, Shanxi is business main dominant area. The Zhou Dynasty, Jin domestic rises suddenly by Shanxi is popular, Jinwengong once one of for Spring and Autumn Period five feudal princes. Qin, Chinese, Wei, Jin time, Shanxi, regardless in politics, the military, the economy, the culture and so on each aspect, is playing the pivotal role. The Southern and Northern Dynasties time, Shanxi is the heartland which the Northern Dynasty rules, moreover Northern Wei Dynasty once take Pingcheng (now Datong) as, afterward Eastern Wei Dynasty, the Northern Qi Dynasty also once take Jinyang (now Taiyuan) as “don't”, “the alternate capital”, this to promoted Shanxi's development positive function. Emperor Taitsung of Tang Li Shimin dispatches troops into battle Taiyuan, has established the Datang dynasty, from this, Shanxi by Emperor Taitsung of Tang was thought that is “the dragon is popular” the place, has taken Shanxi the Tang empire the abdomen dirty area, seals Taiyuan for the Tang dynasty “north”, “Beijing”. Has Tang one generation, Shanxi continuously by its special status and the developed economy, the culture is calling in the world. To the Five Dynasties ten countries, Shanxi to north part of China's politics, the military situation, was still playing the decisive role. The Song distant time, Shanxi is further prosperous, is north part of China the economical, the cultural main developed area. The Yuan Dynasty, the national altogether 11 provinces, Shanxi and Shandong, Hebei, and are called the Yuan Dynasty “the center”, Datong, Pingyang (now Linfen), the Taiyuan three cities become the Huanghe River valley famous to be able. At that time Shanxi trade developed, economical prosperous, cultural prosperous, once received at that time came Italian great traveller Mark who China travels•Polo's highly praising. The Ming Dynasty, Shanxi's commercial rapid development, once got the nation first.   

  After China enters the semicolonial and semifeudal society, Shanxi's economy, the cultural development receive the heavy damage. But, the Shanxi people have resisted the foreign enemy aggression heroically. Specially Sino-Japanese War and war of liberation period, the Shanxi people have waged a more tenacious struggle, composed the innumerable inspiring heroic story on the Three-Jin earth, the hundred-regiment campaign, the Pingxingguan victory, on the party campaign has gone down in history. in April, 1949, entire province liberation. In September, has established the Shanxi Province people's government, henceforth had opened the Shanxi socialist revolution and the construction historical new chapter. For several dozens years, the Shanxi people make for the national socialist construction enterprise for the important contributions.   

  Yellow River flows through Shanxi, has bred the innumerable heroic hero, the people of lofty ideas. In China's each historical period, Shanxi once emerged many statesmen, the strategist, the scientist, the writer, the historian. Most famous has of a Jinwengong heavy ear Spring and Autumn Period time overlords, has Chinese only female emperor, Tang Dynasty outstanding statesman Wu Zetian, has China “the honorific title of guanyu”, Three Kingdom era great soldier Guan Yu, has Tang Dynasty name Di Renjie, Pei, has the Han Dynasty great soldier green radish which, Huo Qubing the resistance Hsiungnu goes down in history, has the establishment “the charting six categories of characters” Western Jin Dynasty map scientist Pei Xiu, had China ancient times four given name one "the Romance of the Three Kingdoms" author Luo Guanzhong, had Tang Dynasty renowned poet Bai Juyi, Wang Bo, Wang Zhihuan, Wang Wei, Wang Changling, the Tang Dynasty renowned writer, the philosopher, political reformer Liu Zongyuan, had the Jin writer, the poetThe Yuan is inquisitive, has in Yuan verse four everybody's three renowned drama Guan Hanqing, Bai Po, Zheng Guangzu, had the end of the Ming dynasty clear at the beginning of thinker, the writer, the medical scientist, the painter-calligrapher Fu mountain, the end of the Qing reform faction raises Ze Xiu as well as fifth heavenly stem eleventh of the twelve Earthly Branches six gentleman Tan Sitong, Liu Guang the younger brother and so on. It can be said that Shanxi is the person outstanding earth deities, generation of not useless person. But the Jin business's trail is treads China, to enjoy a good reputation the whole world.

 

 

   

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