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山西文化介绍

        民间社火,是春节期间民间的自演自娱活动。它来源于古老的土地与火的崇拜。社,即土地神;火,即火祖,是传说中的火神。在以农业文化著称的中国,土地是人们立足之本,它为人类的生存发展奠定了物质基础。火,是人们熟食和取暖之源,也是人类生存发展必不可少的条件,远古人们凭着原始思维认为火也有“灵”,并视之为具有特殊含义的神物,加以崇拜,于是形成了尚火观念。古老的土地与火的崇拜,产生了祭祀社与火的风俗,随着社会的发展,人们认识能力的提高,使祭把社火的仪式逐渐增加了娱人的成分,成为规模盛大,内容繁富的民间娱乐活动。

        山西的民间社火,内容丰富,形式多样。据统计,全省约有 200多种,按其形式可分为锣鼓类、秧歌类、车船轿类、阁跷类、灯火类、模拟禽兽类、模拟鬼神类、武技类等。

        锣鼓类,以节奏强烈明快,场面壮阔粗犷为特点,充分展示了黄土高原人民质朴豪放的气质。秧歌类,有的侧重歌唱如“伞头秧歌”、“小秧歌”,俗称文场秧歌;有的则歌舞结合,以舞为主,俗称武场秧歌。既有本地鲜明的地方特色,又吸收了外地歌舞艺术的特长,如凤秧歌,模拟插秧的舞蹈动作,体现了中国文化兼容并蓄的特点。车船轿类,以精湛的技巧装饰成各类民间交通工具的形状,表现丰富的时代内容,主要有《小车会》、《旱船》等节目。山西灯火,其特点是:一方面继承了传统灯火的艺术,具有全国各地灯火的共性特征,另一方面发挥山西地理资源优势,具有独具的地方特色,如旺火,“煤海之光”灯展,都与山西煤炭生产有关。模拟禽兽类和模拟鬼神类的民间社火,以深厚的文化意蕴见长,表现了远古时期人类与自然界凶禽猛兽的斗争,反映了人类对邪魔鬼怪的迷信与敬畏,透过它可以窥视到民间娱乐由娱神到娱人的发展过程。武技类有九节鞭、鞭杆拳、剑舞、刀舞、穿心杠、跳火笼、霸王鞭等,以高超的技艺引人。

        在晋南最富特色的是阁跷类。它以道具制作精妙神奇、表演技巧惊险动人而为广大群众喜爱。襄汾县中黄村的高台,就是其中之一种。每年春节期间初十前后在本村、邻村表演,从十五起到县城或地区演出。传说,中黄高台最早也是来源于祭祀,由人装扮成神,先在庙内表演,然后相继走出,串街表演,群众都跟随围观,有时水泄不通,后面的人无法看到。后来,有人提出把神的扮演者设法固定在木板上抬起,既增加了表演的立体性,又方便观众欣赏,由此产生了中黄高台。中黄高台的表演先是锣鼓队在前面开道,接着是许多装饰艳丽的旗伞,后面才是精彩的高台。高台一般有八人抬着,铁拐根据表演内容设计,自然巧妙,出人意料之外。例如,有的是一个演员伸出手臂,上面站立着另一个演员;有的是荷花高空盛开,一个小孩站在荷花上面左右旋转;有的是一个演员两臂伸开,一手抓着一个小孩的辫子,小孩悬在空中一动不动,还有的是一个演员用手倒托一把椅子,椅子的一条腿上又站着另一个演员。高处的演员漫舒广袖,轻轻摆动身体,卜面抬的人稳步向前,密切配合,这些民间艺人根据一定的物理原理,利用人们形成错觉的心理特点,虚实相生,真假混同,把结构奇巧的铁棍绑扎成“空中舞蹈”,令观者提心吊胆,而表演者则神态自如。表演的内容以传统戏曲为主,同时也反映日新月异的现实生活,年年有高台,岁岁翻花样。太原地区将与之类似的艺术形式称为“铁棍”、“背棍”,有的艺人能同时担负三位小演员。

        高跷,俗称“拐子”,由舞者踩在木跷上表演,是山西普遍流行的社火形式。木跷高度不一,有的低至一尺多,有的高达一丈五尺,一般为四、五尺。高跷有文高跷、武高跷之分。文高跷用弦乐伴奏,边走边舞,变换各种队形,在街道上表演,舞者有的化装为戏剧人物,既表现历史故事,也表现现代生活,内容丰富多彩,不拘一格。武高跷用打击乐伴奏,以表演特技为主,襄汾县盘道村,素以高跷表演闻名,木跷高达八尺到一丈,一般在村子中心专门设置场地,每隔二丈远摆一张方桌或条桌,连续摆四、五张,舞者逐个跳过之后,还要大劈叉,观者屏息静观,直为舞者的惊险表演捏冷汗。浮山县高村、庄里、张家河、火壁一带,也以武高跷著称,表演的特技有“过天桥”、“朝天蹬”、“跌八叉”、“跳桌子”、“跳双凳’等,颇有武术色彩。垣曲县胡村的高跷,除了磕拐、碰拐、跌叉、跳桌等特技表演外,还有抬二节、抬三节、坐抬、上抬、组合抬等高难抬法,把惊险的表演与优美的造型艺术融合为一体。武高跷表演惊险紧张,动人心魄,与文高跷的气氛热烈舒缓形成鲜明对比。

        Fire civil society is the private sector during the Spring Festival activities since his self-entertainment. It comes from the ancient land and the worship of fire. Agency, that is the land of God; fire, that fire ancestors is legendary Vulcan. In a culture known for agriculture in China, land is the place, it's survival and development of mankind laid the material foundation. Fire, is the source of food and heating is also essential for human survival and development conditions, ancient people, with the original thinking that the fire is also "soul" and has a special meaning asshen wu , to worship, they formed a the concept is still fire. Ancient land and the worship of fire, resulting in a fire ritual and customs agency, with the development of society, to raise awareness of the ability to make sacrifice to the fire agency has the ceremony, a gradual increase in the composition and entertain the people and become a mega-scale, complex content rich folk entertainment.

        Fire of civil society in Shanxi Province, is rich in content and in various forms. According to statistics, there are about more than 200 kinds of the province, according to the form of percussion music can be divided into categories, Yangko categories, travel car category, type of Court Organization, light type, animal type of simulation, simulation of spirits categories, such as weapons technology.

        Class gongs to the strong rhythm of a crisp, bright scene is characterized by rough, and fully demonstrated the Plateau people Haofang simple temperament. Yangko type, and some focus on the songs such as "the first Yangko umbrella," "small Yangko", commonly known as text fields Yangko; some combination of song and dance to dance-oriented, commonly known as wu Yangko field. Both locally distinctive local characteristics, but also absorbed the art of singing and dancing specialty field, such as Feng Yangko simulated planting of the dance movements, embodies the characteristics of Chinese culture, inclusive. Travel Class sedan to exquisite decorative techniques into the shape of various types of civil transport, the performance of the era of rich content, there are "car", and a "han chuan ", and so on. Shanxi lights, and its features are: on the one hand, the succession of the traditional art of lights, with lights all over the country the common characteristics of geographic resources in Shanxi Province, on the other hand to play advantage, with unique local characteristics, such aswang huo , "the light of the sea of coal" light show with the Shanxi coal production. Analog and analog-type animal spirits of the civil society-type fire, to the deep cultural connotation of good, showing the ancient beast of man and naturexiong qin struggle, reflecting the man's demons of superstition and fear of ghosts, it can peep through the civil entertainment from the entertainment and entertain the people of God to the development process. Wujiu jie bian kind of technology, under whip boxing, sword dance, sword dance,chuan xin bars, flash cage, rattle, to the superb artistry of the food.

        In Shanxi is one of the most unique type of Court Organization. It is the production of exquisite magic props, performance techniques for the broad masses of people moving thriller favorite. Huangcun xiangfen County's high-profile, is one of a kind.chu shi before and after the Lunar New Year period each year in the village, village performances, from the county or region has played 15 performances. Legends, in yellow is the first from the high-profile offerings, by people dressed as God, first performed in the temple, and then one after another out,chuan jie performance, the masses have followed the onlookers, and sometimes packed, people can not see behind. Later, it was suggested that God fixed the actor trying to raise the board so as to enhance the performance of the three-dimensional, but also enjoy the convenience of the audience, resulting in a high-profile Zhonghuang. Zhonghuang first high-profile performances in front of drum to clear the way, followed by the flags of many beautiful decorative umbrella, behind the high-profile is excellent. The high-profile carrying eight people in general, show the contents of the design in accordance withtie guai naturally clever, unexpected. For example, an actor out some arms, standing above the other actors; some high-altitude flowers in full bloom, a child standing on a lotus above rotation; have an actor with open arms with one hand and a child's braids, children hanging in the air motionless, as well as an actor is entrusted to hand down a chair, a chair leg and another actor stood. Shu Man actor height wide sleeves, gently swinging the body, face lift people BU steady and close coordination, these folk artists according to certain physical principles, taking advantage of people form a wrong impression of the psychological characteristics of actual situation of Health, genuine confusion, Kit Kat to the structure of the iron banding as "air dance" in order to bring the audience on tenterhooks, and the performers are free expression. Performance-based content to traditional opera, but also reflect the changing realities of life, every year the high-profile, doublesui sui pattern. Taiyuan region with a similar form of art known as the "iron bar", "back stick", some artists can take the three young performers at the same time.

        Stilts, commonly known as the "kidnapper", by the dancers step on the wooden Rocker performances, Shanxi prevalent form of social fire. Wood Rocker highly varied, and some as low as one foot, and some as high asyi zhang foot, usually four or foot. Youwen stilts stilts, stilts Wu division. Text string accompaniment with stilts, walking and dance, transform a variety of formations, in the street performances, dancers and some make-up figures for the drama, the story of both the history and performance of modern life, as rich and colorful, eclectic. Wu stilts with percussion accompaniment to the main stunt show, winding mountain path xiangfen County village known for its performances are renowned for their stilts, wood Rocker Bachimen up toyi zhang generally devoted to settings in the village center site, at a place farer zhang table or tables, a row before four, five, after the dancers one by one to skip, but also great split, hold the audience wait and see, straight for the breathtaking dance performances cold pinch. Highfu shan xian Village, Village, Zhang River, the vicinity of the fire wall, also known as wu stilts, performing stunts are "a bridge", "kicking the air," "or Octree", "jump table", "jumping double-stool ', etc. , some martial arts color. Yuanqu County village stilts Hu, in addition to knock Po, Po touch or cross, stunt jump tables, etc., there are two lift, carry three, sitting, carrying,shang tai , highly difficult to raise portfolio carry law, the breathtaking and beautiful performance as one of the plastic arts integration. stilts performing arms tense thriller, moving spirits, with the warm atmosphere of the text stilts in sharp contrast to alleviate.

 

 

   

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