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山西历史概况介绍

           山西是中华民族的发祥地之一,历史悠久,人文荟萃,拥有丰厚的历史文化遗产。迄今为止有文字记载的历史达三千年之久,素有“中国古代文化博物馆”之美称。西河度文化和丁村文化遗址表明,早在旧石器时代就已有了人类在这里繁衍生息。传说中的中华民族的始祖黄帝、炎帝都曾把山西作为活动的主要地区。中国史前三大伟人尧、舜、禹,都曾在山西境内建都立业。中国历史上第一个奴隶制国家政权夏朝也建立在山西南部。商代,山西是商的主要统治区。周代,晋国由山西境内崛兴,晋文公曾为春秋五霸之一。秦、汉、魏、晋时期,山西无论在政治、军事、经济、文化等各个方面,都起着举足轻重的作用。南北朝时期,山西是北朝统治的中心地带,而且北魏曾以平城(今大同)为都,之后的东魏、北齐也曾以晋阳(今太原)为“别都”、“陪都”,这对促进山西的发展起了积极的作用。唐太宗李世民起兵太原,建立了大唐王朝,由此,山西被唐太宗认为是“龙兴”之地,一直把山西作为唐帝国的腹脏地区,封太原为唐王朝的“北都”、“北京”。有唐一代,山西一直以其特殊的地位和发达的经济、文化称著于世。到五代十国,山西仍然对中国北方的政治、军事形势,起着决定性的作用。宋辽时期,山西进一步繁荣,是中国北方经济、文化的主要发达地区。元代,全国共11个行省,山西与山东、河北,并称为元朝“腹地”,大同、平阳(今临汾)、太原三城则成为黄河流域的著名都会。当时山西商业的发达、经济的繁荣、文化的昌明,曾受到当时来中国旅行的意大利伟大旅行家马可·波罗的盛赞。明代,山西的商业迅猛发展,曾领全国之先。特别是晋商十分活跃,威震海内外,其足迹东出日本,北抵沙俄。最著名的是山西票号,可谓中国金融之鼻祖。

  中国进入半殖民地半封建社会以后,山西的经济、文化发展受到严重破坏。但是,山西人民英勇地抗击了外敌的侵略。特别是抗日战争和解放战争期间,山西人民进行了更加顽强的斗争,在三晋大地上谱写了无数可歌可泣的英雄故事,百团大战、平型关大捷、上党战役永垂青史。1949年4月,全省解放。9月,成立了山西省人民政府,从此揭开了山西社会主义革命和建设的历史新篇章。几十年来,山西人民为全国的社会主义建设事业做出为重大贡献。

  黄河流经山西,孕育了无数英雄豪杰、仁人志士。在中国的各个历史时期,山西曾涌现出许多政治家、军事家、科学家、文学家、历史学家。最著名的有春秋时期的霸主之一晋文公重耳,有中国唯一的女皇帝、唐代杰出的政治家武则天,有中国的“武圣”、三国时期名将关羽,有唐朝名相狄人杰、裴度,有抗击匈奴而名垂青史的汉朝名将卫青、霍去病,有中国第一部编年体通史《资治通鉴》的作者、宋代著名史学家司马光,有创立"制图六体"的西晋地图学家裴秀,有中国古代四大名著之一《三国演义》的作者罗贯中,有唐代著名诗人王勃、王之涣、王维、王昌龄、白居易,唐代著名的文学家、哲学家、政治改革家柳宗元,有金朝文学家、诗人元好问,有元曲四大家中的三位著名戏曲家关汉卿、白朴、郑光祖,有明末清初的思想家、文学家、医学家、书画家傅山;清末维新派扬泽秀以及戊戌六君子谭嗣同、刘光弟等。可以说,山西是人杰地灵,代不乏人。而其中晋商的足迹更是踏遍华夏、享誉全球。

  山西是厚重的黄河文化的主要代表之一。古人类文化遗址、帝都古城、宝刹禅院、石窟碑碣、雕塑壁画、古塔古墓、佛道圣地、险堡关隘以及革命文物、史迹等,从北到南、珠串全省,构成了山西古今兼备,丰富多彩的人文景观。目前,全国保存完好的宋、金以前的地面古建筑物70%以上在全省境内,具有珍贵价值的国家级重点保护文物就有119多处。如佛教圣地五台山、应县木塔、云冈石窟、永乐宫壁画、运城关帝庙、永济普救寺、洪洞广胜寺等在国内外都很著名。山西民歌、民谣舞蹈、民间传说、民间工艺等具有独特的魅力。

  山西是革命老区,具有光荣的革命传统,具有勤与俭的民风。刘胡兰精神、大寨精神、太旧精神、李双良精神激励着人们为争取新生活不断艰苦拚搏。

  Shanxi Province is the birthplace of one of the Chinese nation, has a long history, the humanities galaxy has a huge historical and cultural heritage. So far written history of three thousand years ago, known as the "Museum of Ancient Chinese Culture" in name. River Village small degree of cultural and cultural sites show that as early as the Paleolithic human beings have been thriving here. The legendary ancestor of the Chinese nation, the Yellow Emperor, Emperor Yan have to Shanxi as the main area. China's three great prehistoric Yao, Shun and Yu, both in the capital of Shanxi Liye territory. China's history of slavery first state power Xia also established in southern Shanxi. Shang dynasty, Shanxi is the main rule of business zones. Zhou, Jin territory by the rise in Shanxi, one ofjin wen gong for the Spring and Autumnwu ba . Qin, Han, Wei, Jin period, Shanxi Province in terms of political, military, economic, cultural and other aspects, plays an important role. Northern and Southern Dynasties period, the rule of Shanxi Province is the center of the Northern Dynasties and the Northern Wei had Pyongsong (this Datong) for all, followed by the Eastern Wei, Northern Qi Dynasty had to Jinyang (Taiyuan today) as "all other", "capital", which is the promotion of the development of Shanxi Province has played a positive role. Tang Taizong Li Shimin, Taiyuan, raised an army, the establishment of the Tang dynasty, which, Shanxi is considered to be emperor of the Tang Dynasty "Longxing" place, as has been the Tang Empire Shanxi dirty abdominal area, closed to the Tang Dynasty, Taiyuan, "the North are", "Beijing" . There are Tang Dynasty, Shanxi has been its special status and well-developed economy and culture of the world said. To the Five Dynasties and Ten States, Shanxi Province in north China is still on the political and military situation, play a decisive role. During the Song, Liao, Shanxi to further prosperity of the economy in northern China, culture, the main developed regions. Yuan, a total of 11 provinces, Shanxi and Shandong, Hebei, and known as the Yuan Dynasty "hinterland", Datong, Pingyang (this Linfen), Taiyuan City, three of the Yellow River Basin has become a well-known city. Shanxi commerce was developed, the economic prosperity and cultural advances, has been traveling to China was the great Italian traveler Marco Polo praised. Ming Dynasty, the rapid development of business in Shanxi Province, has been leading the nation first. Shanxi Merchants in particular are very active,wei zhen at home and abroad, and its footprint east of Japan, arrived in North Russia. Is the most famous Shanxi, is the founder of China's financial.

  China's entry into the semi-colonial and semi-feudal society, the Shanxi's economic and cultural development has been severely damaged. However, the Shanxi People's heroic fight against the foreign aggression. Especially during the War of Resistance Against Japan and the War of Liberation, Shanxi people more tenacious struggle against the land in Shanxi write countless heroic epic story of the Hundred Regiments Offensive, Pingxingguan Victory, Shangdang go down the history of the battle. April 1949, the province's liberation. In September, set up the People's Government of Shanxi Province, Shanxi Province since opened a socialist revolution and construction of a new chapter in history. For decades, the people in Shanxi Province for the country's socialist construction as a major contribution to make.

  Yellow River flows through Shanxi, has given birth to countless heroes, people with lofty ideals. In various historical periods of China, Shanxi has emerged in a number of politicians, strategists, scientists, writers, historians. The most famous are the Spring and Autumn Period, one of the dominantjin wen gong zhong er , and the only female emperor in China, the Tang Dynasty Empress Wu outstanding statesman, and China's "San-wu", a famous general during the Three Kingdoms Guan Yu, a Tang dynasty weredi ren jie phase,pei du have to fight the Huns and the history of the Han Dynasty's Weiqing,huo qu bing have made China's first body in the General History of "Mirror" the author of the famous Song Dynasty historian Sima Guang, a creation of " six body mapping "of the Western Jin Dynasty map of Jurists PEI Xiu, a famous ancient Chinese, one of the four" Romance of the Three Kingdoms ", author Luo Guanzhong, a famous Tang Dynasty poet Wang Bo,wang zhi huan , Wang Wei, Wang Changling, Bai, a famous Tang Dynasty Literature , philosophers, political reformers, Liu Zong-yuan, a Jin writer, poet Yuan, the Yuan Dynasty in all three of the four well-known opera house Guan, White Park,zheng guang zu , a thinker of late Ming and early Qing, literature home, medical scientists, Fu Shan art; the late Qing reformers and Yang Xiu Ze Tan Liujunzi Reform Movement, such asliu guang di . It can be said that in Shanxi is outstanding, on behalf of many people. Shanxi Merchants footprints which are all over China, has earned a global reputation.

  Yellow River in Shanxi Province is a thick one of the main culture. The ancient ruins of human culture, the ancient city of Royal Park, Temple pagoda in a temple, grotto stele, sculpture murals, ancient tombs, Buddhist shrines, as well as the risk of Fort revolution pass antiquities, historical sites and so on, from north to south, the province beads form the ancient and modern Shanxi both rich and varied human landscape. At present, well-preserved Song, the ancient buildings prior to the ground more than 70% of the territory in the province, with the value of the precious heritage of the state-level key 119 has a number. Buddhist holy sites such as Mount, Yingxian Wooden Tower, the Yungang Grottoes, Yongle Palace Mural, Yuncheng Temple, Temple Yongji universalist, Hongtongguang sheng si etc. are well-known at home and abroad. Shanxi folk songs, folk dance, folklore, crafts and so has a unique charm.

  Shanxi is the old revolutionary base areas, have a glorious revolutionary tradition, has a ground of folk customs and thrifty. Liu Hulan spirit Dazhai spirit, too old spirit, the spirit of Li Shuangliang inspire people to fight for a new life continue to fight hard.

 

 

   

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