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山西自然地理介绍

          山西省地处我国黄河中游,华北西部的黄土高原地带,东邻河北,西界陕西,南接河南,北连内蒙古自治区。因地处太行山之西,故名山西。春秋时代为晋国故地,因而简称"晋"。
         山西的地理坐标为北纬34°36′-40°44′,东经110°15′-114°32′。
         山西东有巍巍太行山作天然屏障,西、南以滔滔黄河为堑,北抵绵绵长城脚下。因外河而内山,故有"表里山河"的美称。

二、面积、地形
         山西省南北长680多公里,东西宽380多公里,总面积15.63万平方公里。从地图上看,其轮廓呈由东北倾向西南的平行四边形。
         山西地形较为复杂,境内有山地、丘陵、高原、盆地、台地等多种地貌类型,整个地貌是被黄土广泛覆盖的山地型高原,大部分在海拔1,000米至2,000米之间。

三、主要山脉、河流
         东有太行山,西有吕梁山,北有恒山、五台山,南有中条山,中有太岳山。主要河流有黄河、海河两大水系。境内有小河流1,000多条,其中流域面积大于100平方公里的有240条。汾河最长,全长659公里。被称为中华民族文化摇篮的黄河,流经全省19个县(市),流程965公里。目前,山西省年平均水资源总量为140.8亿立方米,引黄入晋工程竣工后,将从根本上解决山西缺水问题,年引水总量12亿立方米,向太原供水6.4亿立方米,向朔州、大同供水5.6亿立方米。

四、气候特征
         山西地形多样,高差悬殊,既有纬度地带性气候,又有明显的垂直变化。山西地处中纬度,距海不远,但因山脉屏障,夏季风影响不大,属于暖温带、温带大陆性气候。年平均气温在-4°-14°C之间。气温地区分布总趋向是自南向北、自平川向山地递减。山西无霜期南长北短,平川长山地短。全省年平均降水量400-650毫米。
一、 植物资源
         山西高等植物有160多科,3,000多种。南部、东南部以次生落叶灌木丛和落叶阔叶林为主的夏绿阔叶混交林地区。中部以中旱生的落叶灌木丛和针叶林为主。北部和西部是暖温带及温带灌木丛和半干旱草原。野生经济植物目前已知者有1,000多种。
二、动物资源
         省内动物资源相当丰富,有陆栖脊椎动物400种,占全国总数的19.12%,主要经济动物有毛皮类20种,药用类70种。有国家一、二、三类保护动物31种,占全国保护种数的21.5%。其中一类保护动物有7种,褐马鸡为我国特有珍禽,是山西的省鸟。
三、土地资源
         土地资源中,尚有可开发的后备土地资源262.9万公顷,其中宜农面积30万公顷,宜林面积97.2万公倾,宜牧面积135.7公顷。目前山西正加快退耕还林步伐,力争用5-10年左右的时间,将全省3000万亩坡耕地和低产全部退耕还林,将现有的宜林荒山荒坡全部造林,使山西的生态环境有一个根本性的改观。 四、矿产资源
山西蕴藏最为丰厚的是矿产资源。目前已发现的有120多种,探明储量的53种,其中储量居全国前10位的有34种,煤、煤层气、铝矾土、耐火粘土、珍珠岩、镓、沸石7种居全国位。煤炭储量已探明的有2600亿吨,占全国煤储总量的1/3,远景储量多,而且煤种齐全,煤质尤佳。具有低灰、低硫、低磷、高发热量的特点,年产原煤3亿多吨,为全国第一产煤大省。铝矾土储量约5亿多吨,占全国的1/3以上。铁、铜、钴、镓等不仅储量大,而且开发条件优越。山西的铁矿已探明储量有30亿吨以上,居全国第四位。铜矿在全国居第三位。非金属矿藏中,石灰石、石膏、长石、石棉、云母、云石、石墨、大理石、花岗岩等储量也相当可观。运城盐湖的岩盐、芒硝及白钠镁矾闻名全国。

         Is situated in the middle reaches of the Yellow River in Shanxi Province, north western area of the Loess Plateau, east Hebei, Shaanxi west, south, Henan, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region north. Because of the Taihang Mountains is located in the West, named Shanxi. Jin returned to the Spring and Autumn Period, and therefore referred to as "Jin."
         Shanxi geographical coordinates for latitude 34 ° 36'-40 ° 44 ', longitude 110 ° 15'-114 ° 32'.
Shanxi Taihang Mountains east Weiwei for natural barrier, west and south of the Yellow River in order to articulate for the cutting, the North arrived at the foot of rain, followed by the Great Wall. From outside and inside the mountain river, it is "table mountains and rivers," the name.
Second, size, topography
         Shanxi Province, more than 680 km long from north to south from east to west over 380 km wide, with a total area of 156,300 square km. From the map view, its outline was inclined to the southwest from the north-east of the parallelogram.
         Shanxi more complex terrain, there are mountains, hills, plateaus, basins, plateaus and other types of landforms, the entire topography was widely covered by loess plateau mountain, most at an altitude of 1,000 meters to 2,000 meters.
Third, the main mountains, rivers
         The east of Taihang,lv liang shan west, the north is the Hengshan, Wutai Mountain, south of Mountain, in the Taiyue Mountain. The main rivers are the Yellow River, Haihe River two. There are more than 1,000 small rivers, including drainage area of 100 square kilometers larger than 240. Fenhe the longest total length of 659 kilometers. Known as the cradle of the Chinese culture of the Yellow River, flowing through the province's 19 counties (cities), 965 kilometers process. At present, the average annual total water resources in Shanxi Province for 14.08 billion cubic meters, the Yellow River to Shanxi Province after the completion of the project will fundamentally solve the problem of water shortage in Shanxi Province, the annual total amount of 1.2 billion cubic meters of water to 640 million cubic meters of water supply in Taiyuan meters, to Shuozhou, Tatung 560 million cubic meters of water.
Fourth, climate characteristics
         Shanxi diverse terrain, poor relief, both latitude climate zones, and significant changes in the vertical. Shanxi is located in mid-latitude, not far from the sea, but the mountain barrier, the summer winds have little effect, belong to warm temperate, temperate continental climate. The annual average temperature at -4 ° -14 ° C between. Geographical distribution of the overall trend of temperature is from north to south, descending from the mountains to the plain. Shanxi South Changbei short frost-free period, short mountain Pingchuan long. The province's average annual precipitation 400-650 mm.
First, plant resources
         Higher plants in Shanxi Province has more than 160 branches, 3,000 multiple. South, south-east to secondary deciduous shrubs and deciduous broad-leaved forest consisting mainly of summer green broad-leaved mixed forest areas. Central to students in the dry deciduous and coniferous forests dominated scrub. The north and west is the warm temperate and temperate scrub and semi-arid grassland. Wild economic plants are known to have 1,000.
Second, animal resources
         The province is abundant animal resources, there are 400 kinds of terrestrial vertebrates, accounting for 19.12% of the total number of major economic categories of animal fur 20, 70 kinds of medicinal category. National one, two, three types of 31 kinds of protected animals, the protection of species accounting for 21.5%. One of the categories there are seven kinds of protected animals, birds Crossoptilon for our unique, is the province of Shanxi birds.
Third, land resources
         Land resources, there are reserves that can be developed 2,629,000 hectares of land resources, which should be an area of 300,000 hectares farmland, forests area of 972,000 hectares,yi mu area of 135.7 hectares. At present, returning farmland to forests is accelerating the pace of Shanxi, and strive with 5-10 years or so will be the province's 3,000 mu low-yield farmland and forests of all the existing forests all afforestation of barren hills and slopes, so that the ecological Shanxi environment is a fundamental change. Fourth, the mineral resources
Shanxi reserves is the most abundant mineral resources. There are now found in more than 120 kinds, 53 kinds of proven reserves, including reserves, the nation's top 10 have 34 kinds, coal, coal bed gas, bauxite, refractory clay, perlite, Ga, 7 kinds of zeolite Home National spaces. Proven coal reserves of 260 billion tons, accounting for the national total coal reserve 1 / 3, long-term reserves, and the complete coal, especially coal. With low ash, low sulfur, low phosphorus, high-heat characteristics of more than 300 million tons annual output of raw coal for the country's first coal-producing province. Bauxite reserves are approximately more than 500 million tons, accounting for 1 / 3 of the above. Iron, copper, cobalt, gallium and other reserves not only big, but also the development of favorable conditions. Shanxi has proven reserves of iron ore has more than three billion tons, ranking the fourth. Copper ranks third in the country. Non-metallic mineral deposits, the limestone, gypsum, feldspar, asbestos, mica, marble, graphite, marble, granite and other reserves are considerable. Yuncheng Salt Lake in rock salt, Glauber's salt and sodium magnesium alumina known white.

 

 

 

   

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