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山海关区概况 行政区划 历史沿革 山海关区地图 自然概况
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石河镇 渤海乡            

“两京锁钥无双地,万里长城第一关。”东方传统文化中,山聚仙乃奇,海藏龙而神,关踞险为雄。 在中国,唯一一个以山、海、关合并命名的地方就是山海关。长城,是中华民族为人类创造的珍贵历史文化遗产,是世界古代建筑史上的奇迹。它象一条巨龙翻山入海,绵延万里,它是华夏儿女用血肉筑成的历史丰碑。 在燕山脚下、渤海之滨的长城上,镶嵌着一颗璀璨的明珠,这就是举世闻名的万里长城东部起点——山海关。

  山海关位于华北与东北的交界处,北倚群峦叠翠的燕山,南襟烟波浩淼的渤海。远古时期这里属幽州碣石,是中原与东北少数民族政治、经济交往的交通要道。到了中古时期,又成为兵家争夺的战略要地。两汉时期,设置临榆县。 1381年,明太祖朱元璋下令在此筑城建关,始称山海关。成为扼东北、华北咽喉要塞的军事重镇。因地势险要,素有“两京锁钥无双地,万里长城第一关”之称。

   山海关系河北省秦皇岛市三个城市区之一,现辖 3个镇、4个街道办事处。全区总面积192平方公里,全区人口13.8万。 山海关属温暖半湿润大陆性季风气候,夏无酷暑,冬无严寒,四季分明,气候宜人,最热七月份平均气温 24.6摄氏度,最冷月份一月平均气温-6.1摄氏度,全年平均气温10.1摄氏度;无台风、无梅雨,年平均降水量668.1毫米,全年无霜期在180天以上,多年平均日照时数为2715小时。全区夏季为西南风,冬季为东北风。本区标准冻土深度为0.85米。山海关海陆空立体交通条件十分优越。京沈高速公路、 102国道和205国道,京山、沈山铁路均在此交汇,京沈高速公路出口距城区仅5公里,从山海关到北京、到沈阳分别只有2个小时和3个小时的路程。山海关火车站是特等站,位于京沈铁路、京沈高速铁路客运专线中段。山海关民航机场位于城西南3公里处,可起降大中型客机,通往上海、广州、哈尔滨、西安等15个城市,并准备增开国内其他航线和国际航线。近临城区的山船码头有4个深水泊位,是良好的装运内外货物的作业区。城西15公里有全国第二大港-秦皇岛港,是世界最大的能源输出港,年货物吞吐量超过亿吨,与世界109个国家和地区的港口有业务往来。山海关三次产业布局合理、结构优化、质量稳定,工业已形成船舶修造、铁路桥梁、机械加工、金属加工等多种行业和门类体系;农业呈城郊型,龙头企业带动,果菜二分天下称雄;旅游业兴旺不衰,“向山野拓展、向海上延伸、向古城挖潜”,连续五年门票收入在 5000万元以上,成为支柱产业。

  目前,山海关区已获得“国家级历史文化名城”、“中国旅游胜地 40佳”、“全国文明风景旅游区示范点”、“首批国家4A级景区”、“国家级森林公园”、“国家级地质公园”、“全国万里边疆文化长廊”、“全国教育先进区”、“全国大樱桃之乡”等称号。

  山海关是历史悠久、名胜荟萃、风光绮丽、气候宜人的历史文化古城和文物旅游胜地。 “平沙古堠孤烟色,落日危楼暮角声”衬托了“山海关,关山海”的威势和险固,老龙头昂首甩出的燕脉长城像一组排萧,百代和平的天籁之声一去万里。 历经沧桑岁月洗礼的山海关,凝重而神奇。城墙上的每一块砖、每一片瓦都似乎在向人们诉说着无尽的往事。她的历史蜿蜒曲折,每一段岁月都见证着日出日落的沧海桑田,每一段曾经的辉煌与阵痛都与历史的脉搏共同律动。作为长城的起点,她与中国的军事、政治、历史休戚相联。五千年前,秦始皇东巡曾驻跸在此,派方士由这里出海寻仙;也曾演绎出孟姜女哭倒长城八百里的千古传奇;唐太宗李世民东征高丽,往返都经过此地,并住兵扼守;明朝大将徐达兵发数万,在这里建关设卫;袁崇焕在此抗阻清军炮轰努尔哈赤;吴三桂在威远城下跪拜多尔衮,引清军从这里入关击退李自成,血染大石河,造成明清两代王朝的更迭; 1900年,八国联军火烧老龙头,那至今还保存完整的一座座营盘时刻昭示着后人勿忘国耻;1933年日寇入侵山海关,中国军民在榆关打响了长城抗战的第一枪…… 历史,使山海关不仅古老,而且充满了更多的人文内涵。“重关称第一,扼险倚雄边。地势长城接,天空沧海连。”这是康熙皇帝第二次东巡山海关时写下的诗句。对于山海关的雄奇险要,历代文人墨客留下了无数直抒胸臆、荡气回肠的优美诗篇。如今的山海关,虽然早已失去了战略防御的军事功能,但时代的变迁又赋予了她新的意义。作为世界文化遗产地,这里每年都吸引着大批的中外游人,到这里观光游览、寻踪访古。目前,山海关已发现有价值的文物古迹、风景名胜达 150多处,旅游资源极为丰富,具有很高的经济价值。 山海关,一位风雨中岿然不动的历史证人,一尊不会风化的镌刻着历史变迁的巨碑。是教育一代又一代青少年认识历史,激发爱国热情的生动教材。

  山海关的城防建筑充分利用自然空间,使建筑群体布局与环境取得和谐统一,形成了一个有机的风景综合体。山海关的古城布局充分注意了她的军事防御功能,独特的七城连环局势别树一帜。碧波浩瀚的大海,幽深静谧的角山、长寿山,秀美多姿的燕塞湖,组成了古城重塞恢廓无垠的背景和依托;湖光山色、海涛雄关,构成了山海关名城特有的城市景观和旅游胜地的独特风貌。山海关的整体布局是由七座城堡、十大关隘和长城上的三十座敌楼、六十二座城台、十八座烽火台、十六座墩台等组成的古代城防建筑群。结构严谨、功能齐全,构成“主体两翼,左辅右弼,二城为哨,一线逶迤,互为犄角之势”的格局,是中国建筑史上罕见的奇作,是我国古代军事科学的结晶,具有重要的军事科学,筑城技术研究的价值。特别是呈大鹏展翅的古城,占地 1.5平方公里的古城,建筑雄伟粗犷,气势磅礴,是万里长城最精粹的地段。它南北有翼城,东西有罗城。古城周长4.3公里,城高14米,宽7米,古城与长城交界处顶宽15米,可“十人同行,五马并骑”。城墙土筑砖包,城四面都设有城门、城楼。作为城防体系核心的古城,城中建筑布局利用西北低、东北高的地形,突出了主体建筑“天下第一关”城楼。 13米高的城楼,为两层三间歇山重檐顶的建筑,四周飞檐上,饰以神态各异的神兽。楼的四周有箭窗六十八孔,红底白环黑靶心。红色的圆柱,配着五光十色的门窗画梁,显得俊秀而雄伟。明代著名书法家肖显所书“天下第一关”,笔锋苍劲,浑厚有力,与古朴雄壮的城楼浑然一体,具有独特的艺术价值。历经 600多年风雨沧桑的古城内,至今仍保持了明清时期街道方格网状布局,漫步在城内窄小的街巷,你会感到一切都是那么的古朴与自然。许多保存完好古色古香的四合院民居,透着典雅与温馨。素朴的门楼立在青石台阶上,同门内高大瓦房相呼应。影壁上镌刻有虫鱼草木莲花龙头图案,弥漫着浓浓的民族气息。
  
近年来,山海关区委、区政府将保护开发祖国优秀历史文化遗产当作头等大事,列入重要议事日程。以延续古城历史文化,开发文物资源,发展旅游事业为出发点,全面启动了古城保护与开发项目。本着“保护长城、继承传统、综合开发、合理布局、发挥优势、开拓未来”的原则,立足高起点,以延续历史文脉的有续发展。2003年,河北省委书记白克明4次来关调研指出:“2008年之前,要把山海关古城打造成世界级的旅游文化名城。”省长季允石亲自主持召开省长办公会,专题研究山海关古城保护开发,要求各级领导要把山海关古城保护开发当成河北省的一件大事,完成好这项光荣而艰巨的任务。

海潮涌动,此消彼长,浮云过隙,漫卷舒风。在这个长城海,龙脉相连的城域,相信在不久的将来,山海古城的古老身世和历史风貌将得到恢复和再现。一个再现历史风貌、世界旅游胜地的“天下第一关一一山海关古城”会以更加瑰丽的雄姿屹立在渤海之滨,长城之首。

 

"Two-lock and key unparalleled in Beijing, the Great Wall, the first hurdle." Oriental tradition, the mountain Juxian is strange, sea, Hidden Dragon and the God, Guan-Hsiung Ju insurance. In China, the only one to mountains, the sea is a place named after the merger closed Shanhaiguan. The Great Wall of the Chinese nation for the creation of the precious historical and cultural heritage of mankind, the world's ancient architectural history of a miracle. It is like a dragon and crosses into the sea, stretching thousands of miles, it is built with flesh and blood sons and daughters of the historical monument. In the Yanshan the foot of the Great Wall on the Bohai Sea, inlaid with a bright pearl, which is the eastern starting point of the world-famous Great Wall - Shanhaiguan.

Shanhaiguan is located at the junction of North and Northeast, Beiyi Emerald Group Yanshan mountain ranges, South lapel vastness of the Bohai Sea. Here is a Youzhou Tateishi ancient times, is the Central Plains and the Northeast minority political and economic exchanges between the principal roads. By the Middle Ages, has become a strategic military strategists of contention. Han Dynasty, set up temporary elm County. In 1381, the emperor ordered the first Ming Guan city construction in this building before Shanhaiguan said. A brief Northeast, North China's military fortress city of the throat. Due to difficult terrain, known as "two lock and key unparalleled in Beijing, the Great Wall the first hurdle," said.

Aboriginal Relations Qinhuangdao City, Hebei Province, one of the three cities area, has jurisdiction over three towns, 4 subdistrict offices. The region's total area of 192 square kilometers, the whole population of 138,000. Shanhaiguan is a warm and semi-humid continental monsoon climate, summer and no heat, no cold winter, four distinct seasons and pleasant weather, the hottest July average temperature of 24.6 degrees Celsius, the coldest month of January the average temperature of -6.1 degrees Celsius, annual average temperature of 10.1 degrees Celsius; no typhoon, no rainy season, the average annual precipitation is 668.1 millimeters, annual frost-free period of 180 days or more, years of average sunshine hours of 2715 hours. The region southwest winds in summer, winter north-easterly winds. The standard depth of frozen soil in this area is 0.85 meters. Shanhaiguan three-dimensional traffic conditions are very favorable sea and air. Beijing-Shenyang expressway, 102 national highway and 205 National Highway, Jingshan, Shen Mountain Railway are at this intersection, Beijing-Shenyang highway exit is only 5 kilometers away from the city, from Shanhaiguan to Beijing to Shenyang were only 2 hours and 3 hours away . Shanhaiguan Railway Station is the Principal Station, located in Beijing-Shenyang Railway, Beijing-Shenyang passenger high-speed railway line the middle. Shanhaiguan civil aviation airport is located 3 kilometers southwest of the city, can accommodate medium-sized passenger plane, leading to Shanghai, Guangzhou, Harbin, Xi'an and other 15 cities and is ready to operate other domestic routes and international routes. Temporary boat near the mountain town has four deep-water berth pier is a good shipment of goods within and outside the area of operations. 15 km west of the city has the country's second largest port - Qinhuangdao Port, is the world's largest energy output of Hong Kong, the annual cargo throughput of more than 100 million tons, with the world's 109 countries and regions, ports business. Shanhaiguan three industries rational layout, structural optimization, stable quality, industry has formed a shipbuilding, railway bridges, machinery processing, metal processing and other industries and categories of systems; agriculture was suburban, leading enterprises led the world fruit and vegetable two points rule the roost; tourism to thrive, "to the mountain to expand, to extend the sea, to the ancient city of tapping the potential," ticket sales for five consecutive years 5,000 million yuan to become pillar industries.

At present, the Shanhaiguan area has already received "state-level historical and cultural city", "Chinese tourist destination 40 good", "National Scenic Area civilized demonstration sites," "the first national 4A-level scenic spots," "National Forest Park", "National Grade Geological Park "," Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia Cultural Corridor "," National Education Advanced Area "," National Cherry township, "and so on.

Shanhaiguan is a long history, attractions atmosphere, and scenery-lai, a pleasant climate in ancient history and culture and heritage tourist destination. "Pincha Ancient Laryngeal Smoke in color, the sunset dangerous twilight trumpets," set off a "Shanhaiguan, tribal customs," the prestige and risk-solid, the old leader of the Yan thrown head held high, the Great Wall, like a group of row clock Xiao, 100 on behalf of peace, the sound of Heaven 1 to go thousands of miles. Vicissitudes of life years after the baptism of Shanhaiguan, dignified and magic. Every piece of brick wall, every piece of tile seems to tell the people the endless past. Meandering her history, every period of years have witnessed sunrise and sunset and marshes, each section has a history of glory and pain are related to the pulse of the common rhythm. As a starting point for the Great Wall, she and China's military, political, historical joys and sorrows linked. Five thousand years ago, Qin Shi Huang Eastern streets for the emperor who has been stationed in this patrol, sent out to sea from here alchemist searching cents; also deduced Meng Jiangnu tears down through the ages and the legendary Great Wall, 800 years; Tang Taizong Li Shimin Dongzheng Korea, and from all over here, and live in Bing critical point; Xu Da Ming Dynasty generals, made tens of thousands of soldiers, where the building is located Guan Wei; Yuan Chonghuan in this resistance shelled Nurhachu Qing; Wu Sangui kneel before the next city in the Weiyuan Dorgon, cited Qing repulsed from here into the customs Li Zicheng, bloodshed Dashi, resulting in the change of dynasty Ming and Qing dynasties; in 1900, Boxer Rebellion burning the old faucet, which still preserved a seat Ying Pun descendants not to forget the humiliation always beckons; 1933 Japanese invasion of Shanhaiguan, Chinese soldiers and civilians yuguan fired the first shot of the Great Wall ... ... history of the war, so that Shanhaiguan is not only ancient, but also a more humanistic connotation. "Heavy Guan said first, brief risk lean male side. Topography of the Great Wall then, the sky even sea." This is the second time the East Emperor Kangxi, when the customs officials who patrol the poem written. Shanhaiguan advantageous for the magnificent, ancient literati left countless directly express one's mind, soul-stirring and beautiful poems. Today's Shanhaiguan, although the defense had lost their strategic military capability, but changing times also gives new meaning to her. As the world's cultural heritage places, where every year, attracting a large number of Chinese and foreign tourists, sightseeing here, Pursuit visit to Cuba. At present, the Shanhaiguan valuable cultural relics have been found, up to 150 various scenic spots, tourist resources are very rich, with high economic value. Shanhaiguan, a wind and rain stays on the history of a witness, a weathering of the inscription does not change the giant monument of history. Is to educate generations of young people understand history to inspire patriotism vivid teaching materials.

Shanhaiguan take full advantage of the natural architecture of the city defense, making the building layout and environment groups, to achieve harmony, forming a landscape of organic synthesis. Shanhaiguan full attention to the layout of the ancient city of her military defense capabilities, the unique situation in the seven-city chain a unique identity. Bibo the vast ocean, where the deep quiet of Cape Mount, Longevity Hill, beautiful and diverse Yansai Hu formed restored the ancient city of re-plug the background and rely on endless profiles; the lakes and mountains with big Haitao constitute Shanhaiguan city-specific urban landscape and tourist destination unique character. Shanhaiguan The overall layout of the castle from the seven, ten passes, and the Great Wall watch tower on the 30, 62 City, Taiwan, 18 beacon towers, piers, composed of 16 buildings of ancient city defense. Structured, functional, constitute "the main wings, the left auxiliary right-pil, second city of the post, first-line winding each other horn trend" scenario, is rare in the history of Chinese architecture as odd, is the crystallization of ancient Chinese military science, have important military science, fortification technology research value. Dapeng wings in particular, was the ancient city covers an area of 1.5 square kilometers of the city, building majestic rugged, magnificent, is the essence of the Great Wall's most lots. It is north and south has Yicheng, things have Rochester. Circumference of 4.3 kilometers Old Town, the city, 14 meters high, wide and 7 meters, the ancient city at the junction with the Great Wall Dingkuan 15 meters, can "ten colleagues, five horses and riding." Earthen walls of brick package, the city on all sides are equipped with gates, gate tower. As a city defense system, the core of the ancient city, the city's architectural layout of the use of low-northwest, northeast high terrain, highlighting the main building "best in the world off" tower. 13-meter-high tower, for a two-tier three intermittent double eaves and the top of the mountain building, around the eaves, the decorated with an air of varying sacred animal. Floor, surrounded by window 68 arrow holes, white on red ring black bull's eye. Red columns, doors and windows painted with a colorful beams appear handsome and ambitious. Xiao Xian Ming Dynasty by the famous calligrapher book "best in the world off," Bifeng vigorous, vigorous powerful, majestic and ancient towers seamless, has a unique artistic value. After 600 years of wind and rain within the vicissitudes of the city and still maintain the street grid mesh layout of Ming and Qing Dynasties, as we stroll the narrow streets and alleys in the city, you will feel that everything is the simplicity and nature. Many well-preserved antique courtyard dwellings, a trace of elegance and warmth. Naive gatehouse stand in bluestone steps, tile-roofed house with the door tall and echoes. Screen wall is inscribed with insects, fish, vegetation, leading lotus pattern, filled with a strong ethnic flavor.

In recent years, Shanhaiguan District, the district government of outstanding historical and cultural heritage protection and development of the motherland as the top priority, an important item on the agenda. Is a continuation of ancient history and culture, development of heritage resources, developing the tourism industry as a starting point, have fully launched the ancient city protection and development projects. The spirit of "protection of the Great Wall, inherited traditions, comprehensive development and rational distribution of advantage, and open up the future" principle, based on a high starting point, a continuation of the historical veins are continue to develop. In 2003, the Hebei Provincial Party Secretary Bai Keming, four times to shut down research said: "Prior to 2008, should Shanhaiguan city into a world-class tourist and cultural city." Governor Ji Yunshi personally chaired the governors office, thematic studies Shanhaiguan Ancient City Protection and Development, asked leaders at all levels should Shanhaiguan Ancient City Protection and Development as a major event in Hebei province successfully fulfill this glorious and arduous task.

Tides surging, bearing that in mind clouds over clearance, Man Juan Shu Feng. In this Great Wall of the sea, DragonVenture connected to Metro, I believe that in the near future, the tribal life experience and history of the ancient city of the ancient character will be restored and reproduced. A reproduction of historical style and features the world's tourist destination of the "best in the world off 11 Shanhaiguan city" will be a more magnificent and majestic stands in the Bohai Sea, the Great Wall the first place.

   

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