我们的特色:最全面的乡镇旅游门户网站,全站内容中英文介绍。
设为首页 收藏本站

首 页 特价机票 旅游景点 电子地图 历史文化 动物世界 户外常识 特色美食 植物大全 民族介绍
北京 天津 上海 重庆 河北 山西 辽宁 吉林 浙江 江苏 江西 安徽 福建 黑龙江 西藏 内蒙古 香港
湖南 广东 海南 四川 贵州 云南 陕西 甘肃 青海 台湾 湖北 河南 山东 宁夏 新疆 广西 澳门

热门城市

广州

|

杭州

|

成都

|

济南

|

长春

|

上海

|

石家庄

|

哈尔滨

北京

|

桂林

|

西安

|

深圳

|

厦门

|

丽江

|

张家界

|

景德镇

景点推荐

九寨沟 桂林 兵马俑 西湖 丽江 三亚
武夷山 黄山 张家界 凤凰 长城 故宫

  

河 北 辖 区

 
 
石家庄市 邢台市 唐山市
张家口市 廊坊市 衡水市
保定市 邯郸市 秦皇岛市
承德市 沧州市  
 

 

  

便 民 查 询

 
 
天气查询

机票查询

电子年历
火车时刻
机票真伪
酒店查询

邮编区号
防骗常识
长途客车
安全常识
世界时间
紧急救护
 

 

  

  北 介 绍

 
 
河北简介 地理位置 河北简称
气候环境 经济状况 人口状况
民族分布 交通通信 产业基础
对外开放 历史名人 各地特产
通讯编码 汽车牌照 河北高校
河北地图 河北地形 海拔高度
水资源 能源状况 矿产资源

 

经济发展

 

财政概况 林业经济 通信发展
农业经济 工业经济 建筑发展
粮食概况 交通运输 对外经济
 

 

  

河北介绍

 
   

粮食概况

一、[机构沿革]
  河北省国有粮食系统是在新中国建立前晋察冀边区政府粮食局和晋冀鲁豫边区政府粮食局的基础上建立起来的。1949年8月21日,华北粮食公司在天津成立,设保定、唐山、石家庄、邯郸、衡水、临清、沧州、张家口等分公司。1949年9月1日,成立华北人民政府,设华北粮食总局和河北、察哈尔、热河等省粮食分局。1949年10月1日中华人民共和国成立后,河北省国有粮食商业即形成两个系统:一是河北省财政厅所属各级粮食局系统,受河北省政府和国家财政部粮食总局双重领导,主要通过税收形式征收公粮(实物税),保证军政供给;二是河北省商业厅所属粮食公司系统,受河北省政府和国家贸易部中国粮食公司双重领导,主要经营城乡粮食市场购销调剂和吞吐业务,与当时存在的大量私营粮商作斗争,平抑粮价,稳定市场。1952年9月8日,两套国有粮食商业机构合并为河北省粮食管理局,1953年1月28日改名为河北省粮食厅,形成了统一的国有粮食商业系统。1956年6月,将河北省商业厅所属的油脂公司划归粮食系统。“文化大革命”初期,粮食机构被撤并,大量粮食干部被裁减。当时河北省粮食厅只留下十多人组成业务组,负责粮食工作。1969年6月,河北省革命委员会决定,成立河北省革命委员会粮棉局。1971年8月,改为河北省革命委员会粮食局,1980年5月,称河北省粮食局。自此,各级粮食机构逐步恢复,人员陆续调回。中共十一届三中全会后,随着改革开放各项政策的落实,粮食机构得到了进一步加强和完善。

二、[购销体制变革]
  新中国成立后,河北省粮食购销制度大致经历了如下变化:1949∽1953年私营粮食商业同国营粮食商业并存;1953年开始实行粮食统购统销政策,取缔私营粮商,由国家粮食部门统一收购、统一销售、统一调拨、统一库存,简称“四统一”的粮食管理制度,1955年实行“三定”办法,即对农村实行定产、定购、定销,这仍属对统购统销政策的完善。1962年开始,在保证完成国家计划收购和调拨任务的前提下,可以进行粮食议购议销,但由供销合作社或粮食部门统一经营,实质仍属统购统销之列。1983年1月2日中共中央发出《关于印发当前农村经济政策若干问题的通知》,规定粮食统购任务完成以后应当允许多渠道经营;国营商业要积极开展粮食议购议销业务;供销社和农村其它合作商业组织,可以灵活购销;农民个人可以经营,可以进城、出县、出省经营粮食。这样,全省粮食购销就形成由计划调节的国营商业的统购统销和由市场调节的各种商业组织和个人议购议销两部分同时并存的格局,打破了统购统销的一统局面,并允许粮食跨区域流通,开放粮食市场。1985年根据中央的规定,取消了实行30多年的粮食统购政策,改为合同订购,并陆续放开了部分粮食品种。此后,粮食部门在坚持改革、开放、搞活的思想指导下,活跃城乡市场,保证军需民食,按照每年丰歉不同,调整购销任务和购销价格,并实行粮食收购与定量供应化肥、柴油挂钩的办法。1990年将粮食合同定购改为国家定购。根据国务院决定,1991年5月提高粮食统销价格,食油实行购销同价,9月1日在秦皇岛市进行了粮食价格放开试点。1992年4月实行粮食购销同价,同时给城市职工增发部分粮价补贴。1993年放开粮食销价,实现了粮食购销的历史性重大改革。国务院决定从1995年起实行“米袋子”省长负责制。主要内容是“稳定粮田面积;提高粮食单产,增加总产;抓好收购,掌握70%∽80%的粮源;建立和抓好地方粮食储备;建立和管理粮食风险基金;负责完成地方进口粮食任务;安排好当地粮食市场,确保供应,稳定粮价;负责省际间的粮食调剂等。为落实国务院的决定,省政府发出《关于进一步搞好粮食购销工作的通知》,要求1995年度省内粮食购销自求平衡,实行统一安排、分级负责、总量平衡、保证调拨的原则。同年5月,根据国务院《关于粮食部门深化改革实行两条线运行的通知》,把政策性业务与商业性经营分开,明确职责,分别核算。从1996年6月1日起,根据国务院统一部署,全省大幅度调高定购粮收购价格;从7月1日起,相应调整了成品粮食的销售价格,但对军供粮、大专院校学生口粮和特困职工实行优惠照顾。由于粮食流通长期实行政企不分的体制,政策性亏损和经营性亏损难以分清,国家财政长期背着沉重的包袱。因此,1998年国务院决定进行粮食流通体制改革,改革的基本原则是“四分开一完善”,即:政企分开,储备与经营分开,中央与地方责任分开,新老财务挂账分开,完善粮食价格机制。在改革中,要求国有粮食企业坚定不移地按保护价敞开收购农民手中的余粮,不允许私商到农村收购粮食;国有粮食企业必须按顺价(收购价加经营费用)销售粮食,不允许亏损出售粮食;农业发展银行粮食收购资金实行封闭运行,不许挤占挪用。2001年开始实行粮食购销市场化改革,逐步调整保护价粮食的品种和范围,放宽对非国有粮食企业和个体工商户从事粮食收购的资格限制。从2001年秋粮上市起,将玉米、稻谷退出保护价收购范围;从2002年夏粮上市起,将廊坊、唐山、秦皇岛三市的小麦退出保护价收购范围;2003年在对石家庄、邯郸、邢台、保定、沧州、衡水等中南部六市小麦继续实行保护价收购制度的同时,进一步缩小了保护价收购范围,确定小麦保护价收购数量为45亿斤,重点安排到京深高速公路沿线的小麦主要区,实现了由敞开收购到限量保护的转变。同时适应WTO规则要求,开始对粮食补贴方式进行调整,2003年全省有6个县进行直补农民的试点。

三、[粮食生产和购销形势变化]
  中华人民共和国建立初期,河北省农业基础差、底子薄、抗灾能力弱,粮食产量低而不稳,1949年全省粮食产量仅46.9亿公斤。1966年首次突破100亿公斤大关,到1978年达到168.8亿公斤,但由于人口增长和社会需求量增加,全省长期处于缺粮状态,只能依靠国家调入和进口维持紧张平衡。30年间,全省纯调入粮食138.6亿公斤,平均每年调入4.62亿公斤,最多的年份调入14.4亿公斤。中共十一届三中全会以后,农村推行家庭联产承包责任制,逐步改革粮食流通体制,加强农业的基础性地位,极大地调动了农民的生产积极性,粮食生产大幅度增长,商品粮不断增加。河北省从1982年开始,改变了过去长期缺粮的面貌,变为自足有余,粮食生产和流通形势发生了根本性的变化。1988年全省粮食产量突破200亿公斤大关,登上一个新的台阶,1994年又突破了250亿公斤大关,1998年达到291.7亿公斤,创历史最高纪录,1999年后稳定在250亿公斤以上。目前,河北省已经成为全国14个粮食主产省之一,每年大约出省粮食在20亿公斤左右。粮改以来,全省各级粮食部门和广大国有粮食购销企业认真执行按保护价敞开收购农民余粮政策,粮食收购量大幅度增加。从1998年到2002年底,全省国有粮食购销企业累计收购粮食590多亿公斤,五年平均年收购量达到120亿公斤左右,年商品粮平均购率(收购占商品粮的比率)达到80%以上,基本满足了广大农民的售粮要求,增加了农民收入,稳定了粮食生产能力。粮改以来,全省粮食部门坚持以经济效益为中心,在落实好收购政策的同时,大力开拓省内与省外两个市场,积极做好粮食出口,顺价促销工作进展比较顺利,粮食销售数量逐年攀升,经济效益有所提高。从1998年到2002年底,全省国有粮食购销企业累计销售粮食662多亿公斤,五年平均销售粮食达132亿公斤,实现了销大于购的良性循环,全省国有粮食购销企业连续四年统算实现盈利。

 

1, [body History]
Hebei Province, the state-owned grain system in the new China was founded before the Cha-Ji Border Region Government Food Bureau and the Bureau of Jin-Ji Border Region Government on the basis of food set up. August 21, 1949, was established in Tianjin in North China Food Corporation located Baoding, Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan, Hengshui, Linqing, Cangzhou, Zhangjiakou and other branches. September 1, 1949, the establishment of the North China People's Government, is located in North China Food Administration and Hebei, Chahar, Rehe food sub-provinces. October 1, 1949 after the establishment of The People's Republic of China, Hebei Province, the state-owned food business that is the formation of two systems: First, Hebei Province, Department of Finance-owned grain bureau system at all levels by the Hebei provincial government and the State Grain Administration of the dual leadership of the Ministry of Finance, grain tax collection through forms of taxation (in-kind tax) to ensure that political and military supplies; two commercial offices in Hebei Province-owned food company system, subject to the Hebei provincial government and the country's dual leadership of China's grain trade, mainly engaged in purchase and sale of urban and rural food markets and regulate the handling operations , with the then existing large number of private grain merchants fight to curb food prices, stabilize the market. September 8, 1952, two sets of state-owned grain business into Hebei Province, grain Authority, January 28, 1953 was renamed the Office of Hebei Province, grain, forming a unified state-owned food business systems. In June 1956, the Office of Hebei Province, business owned oil companies classified as food system. "Cultural Revolution" early food agencies have been dismantled or merged, a large number of food cadres had been reduced. At that time the Office of Hebei Province, leaving more than 10 food-member business group is responsible for grain work. In June 1969, Hebei Province Revolutionary Committee decided to set up the Revolutionary Committee of the grain and cotton Bureau of Hebei Province. In August 1971, replaced by the Revolutionary Committee of Grain Bureau in Hebei Province, in May 1980, saying Grain Bureau in Hebei Province. Since then, the gradual recovery of food agencies at all levels of personnel gradually repatriated. After the Third Plenum of the Eleventh CPC, with the implementation of reform and opening up policies, food agencies has been further strengthened and improved.

2, [purchase and sale of institutional change]
After the founding of New China, Hebei Province, grain marketing system in roughly the following changes: 1949 ∽ 1953 the Private grain business with the state-owned food business co-exist; unified purchase and marketing of grain in 1953, introduced the policy to ban the private grain merchants, the food sector by the state with centralized purchasing and uniform sales, uniform allocation, unified inventory, referred to as the "four unity" of the food management system, implemented in 1955, "determining three things" approach, namely, the rural areas, production quotas, ordering, Ding Xiao, this is still perfect on the unified purchase and marketing policy. In 1962, in the state plan to ensure the completion of the acquisition and allocation of tasks, under the premise can be negotiated purchase and sale of food, but by the supply and marketing cooperatives or food departments under a unified management, unified purchase and marketing of the substance is still out. January 2, 1983 the CPC Central Committee issued the "current rural economic policy on the issuance of a number of issues notice" to require state purchase of grain after the completion of the task should be allowed to multi-channel operation; state-owned business should actively carry out food negotiated purchase and sale operations; supply and marketing cooperatives and rural other cooperative business organizations, the flexibility to purchase and sale; individual farmers can operate, you can into the city, a county, a province of operation of food. In this way, the province's grain marketing was formed by the planned adjustment of the state-owned commercial market regulation by the state monopoly for purchase and a variety of business organizations and individuals negotiated purchase and sale of the pattern of the two side by side, breaking the state monopoly for purchase of the unified situation and allow the food inter-regional flows, open food markets. According to the provisions of the Central Committee in 1985, abolished the practice more than 30 years of grain purchase and the policy changed to the contract order, and they are being liberalized some of the grain varieties. Since then, the food sector, adhering to reform and opening up, and invigoration of thought, the active urban and rural markets to ensure food quartermaster China, according to an annual Feng apologized different, adjust the purchase and sale tasks and buying and selling prices, and the implementation of grain procurement and quantitative supply of fertilizer, diesel oil-linked approach. 1990 will be replaced by the state procurement of grain purchase contracts. According to the State Council decided in May 1991 increased the price of food marketing, cooking oil, with the implementation of purchase and sale prices, September 1 in Qinhuangdao city in a pilot food price liberalization. In April 1992 with the purchase and sale of grain prices, while giving additional part of the grain subsidies to urban workers. 1993 liberalization of grain selling price to achieve food purchase and sale of the historic major reforms. Since 1995, the State Council decided to implement "rice bag" provincial governor responsibility system. Is about "stabilizing the grain area; to increase food yields, increasing total output; do a good job acquisition, control 70% ∽ 80% of the grain resources; building and do a good job of local grain reserves; establishment and management of the grain risk fund; responsible for the completion of local import grain task; arrangements for local food market to ensure supply and stable prices; is responsible for inter-provincial transfers and other food. for the implementation of the decision of the State Council, the provincial government issued a "Circular on Further improve the work of grain procurement," which called for 1995 Provincial Self-demand balance within the grain marketing, unified arrangement, graded responsibility, the total balance, ensure the allocation of principle. in the same year in May, according to the State Council "on the food sector, deepen reform and the implementation of two lines running on notice" to policy-related business separation of commercial operation, clear responsibilities, accounting, respectively. From June 1, 1996 onwards, under the State Council's unified plan, the province's substantial price increase Dinggou Liang; from July 1 onwards, and adjust the sales of finished food price, but the military for food, rations and poverty-stricken college students preferential care workers. Zhengqibufen because of the grain circulation system to implement a long-term, policy losses and operating losses is difficult to distinguish, the state long-term financial burden of carrying heavy . Thus, in 1998 the State Council decided to conduct the grain circulation system reform, the basic principle is "a perfect separation of four", namely: separating the reserve and management separated from the responsibility of central and local separation of the financial losses are separated from the old and new, perfect food price mechanism. In this reform, urged state-owned grain enterprises firmly open to purchase by farmers at protective prices of the surplus, does not allow private traders to purchase grain in rural areas; state-owned grain enterprises must shun price (purchase price plus operating expenses) Sales of food, losses are not allowed to sell food; the Agricultural Development Bank of grain purchasing funds will be closed to run, not allowed to misappropriation. In 2001 the introduction of grain purchasing market-oriented reforms, and gradually adjust the prices to protect the variety and scope of food, the relaxation of the non-state-owned grain enterprises and individual industrial and commercial households engaged in grain purchase the eligibility criteria. from the market since autumn 2001, will be corn, rice out of the scope of price; from 2002 listing of summer onwards, Langfang, Tangshan, Qinhuangdao City, three out of the scope of price of wheat; in 2003 in the of Shijiazhuang, Handan, Xingtai, Baoding, Cangzhou, Hengshui and other six cities in central and southern wheat continue to implement the system of price controls at the same time, further narrowing the scope of price controls to determine the number of price of wheat for 4.5 billion pounds, focusing on arrangements to Beijing Shenzhen Expressway along the major wheat areas, achieved limited protection from the open to buy into the change. At the same time to adapt to WTO rules require to begin to adjust the way of food subsidies in 2003, the province has six pilot counties farmers direct subsidies.

3, [food production and marketing changes in the situation]
The early establishment of the PRC, Hebei Province, poor agricultural infrastructure, weak economic foundation, disaster weak, grain yield is low and unstable, the province's grain output in 1949 is only 4.69 billion kilograms. 1966 mark for the first time exceeded 10 billion kilograms, to 1978 to reach 16.88 billion kilograms, but because of population growth and increasing social demand, the province's long-term food shortages in the state, can only rely on the maintenance of tension in the country and import of transferred balance. 30 years, the province's net 13.86 billion kilograms of grain transferred to an annual average of 462 million kilograms transferred most of the year transferred to 1.44 billion kilograms. After the Third Plenum of the Eleventh CPC in rural areas to implement the household contract responsibility system, the reform of grain circulation system to gradually strengthen the position of agriculture as the foundation, which greatly mobilized the enthusiasm of farmers production, food production up sharply, grain growing. Hebei Province since 1982, changing the face of chronically food-insecure in the past and become more than self-sufficiency, food production and circulation situation has fundamentally changed. In 1988 the province's grain production exceeded 20 billion kilograms mark, set foot on a new stage in 1994 exceeded 25 billion kilograms mark in 1998 reached 29.17 billion kilograms, a record post-1999 stabilized at 25 billion kg. At present, Hebei Province, has become one of the country's 14 major grain-producing provinces, a province of approximately 20 billion kg of grain. Since pay to the province at all levels of the food sector and the majority of state-owned grain purchase and marketing enterprises to seriously implement the farmers at protective prices without purchase surplus grain policy, a substantial increase in the amount of grain purchases. From 1998 to the end of 2002, the province acquired state-owned grain purchase and marketing enterprises amounted to more than 590 billion kilograms of grain, five-year average annual purchase volume reached about 12 billion kilograms, the annual average grain purchase rate (the ratio of the acquisition accounting for grain) reached over 80%, basically meet the demands of the peasants Shou Liang, an increase of peasant income, and stability of grain production capacity. Since pay to the province food sector adhere to the economic efficiency, the acquisition in the implementation of good policy, vigorously develop the province and the two markets outside the province, actively carry out grain exports, cis-price promotions relatively smooth progress of work, food sales increasing year by year, economic efficiency improved. From 1998 to the end of 2002, the province sold the state-owned grain purchase and marketing enterprises amounted to more than 662 billion kilograms of grain, five-year average sales reached 13.2 billion kilograms of grain and achieved sales greater than the purchase of a virtuous cycle, the province's state-owned grain purchase and marketing enterprises for four consecutive years integration operator profits.

 

   

联系我们 合作伙伴 友情链接 免责声明 设为首页 收藏本站

 

 

本站并不保证所有内容完全正确,如有错误之处,欢迎指正
  版权所有:走遍中国网 |   电话: 0663-3442234 

   QQ  952144520    E-mail:airtofly#163.com (请把#换成@号)