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林业经济

河北省地处京津周围,地跨温带和暖温带,属温带和暖温带大陆性季风气候,雨热同季,四季分明,年降水量340-800毫米。全省境内高原、山地、平原三大地貌类型齐全,土地总面积18.7万平方公里,占全国总面积的1.96%。辖11个市、138个县市,总人口为6674万人。河北林业是一个集林业、果树、花卉、蚕桑、林产加工、森林旅游为一体的综合行业。到2005年底,全省林业用地面积为8581364公顷(12872万亩),占全省总土地面积的45.72%。有林地面积为4341258公顷(6512万亩),森林覆盖率为23.25%,活立木总蓄积量为10226万立方米。2006年,林业产业总产值达483亿元。

  一、林业发展沿革

  1949年以前,河北省森林几乎破坏殆尽,仅残存天然次生林788万亩,森林覆盖率仅有2.8%,是全国少林省份之一;1949年~1966年,是河北省林业的恢复、调整阶段,全省有林地面积增加1017万亩,森林覆盖率增加了3.6个百分点;1967年~1978年,是河北林业建设在困难中发展的阶段。全省有林地面积增加920万亩,森林覆盖率增加3.3个百分点;1978年,党的十一届三中全会之后,河北林业进入振兴时期。全省生态林业工程建设和林果基地建设实施了工程化管理,人工造林进入工程造林的新阶段。“十五”期间,我省林业建设进入投资最多、规模最大、速度最快、质量最好的发展时期。林业发展环境进一步优化,省委、省政府做出了《关于推进林业跨越式发展的决定》,提出了“构筑京津绿色屏障,再造河北秀美山川”的林业发展总体目标,省人大出台了《河北省全民义务植树条例》、《河北省封山育林条例》等多部地方林业法规;省政府制定了《河北省森林防火实施办法》和《河北省果品强省建设规划》、《河北省林板(纸)一体化建设规划》、《河北省绿色通道工程建设规划》等多项规划。各市、县党委、政府把林业工作作为改善生态环境、实现富民强县的基础性工作,完善政策,加大投入,为全省林业发展营造了良好环境。

  二、林业建设成就

  ---生态建设稳步推进。与国家六大林业工程相衔接,启动实施了京津风沙源治理、退耕还林、三北防护林、太行山绿化、通道绿化、沿海防护林等一批重点林业工程。坚持全社会办林业的方针,广泛开展义务植树、部门绿化,大力发展民营造林。“十五”以来,全省年均造林500多万亩,实施封山育林2000多万亩。全省森林覆盖率比“九五”未提高近4个百分点;沙化土地面积比1999年减少143万亩,是全国沙化土地减少最明显的四个省份之一。近年来,着眼于改善人口聚居区生态环境,大力弘扬生态文化,扩大林业的社会影响力,把造林绿化的重点由偏远山区和农村向城镇延伸,按照以人为本、生态优先的绿化理念,大力推动城市森林建设,取得了明显成效。全省局部地区生态恶化的趋势得到缓解,生态环境开始好转。

  ---林果产业快速发展。我省是果树生产大省,现有果树面积2300多万亩,果品年产量90多亿公斤,面积和产量均居全国第二位,其中梨、红枣、板栗、柿子、杏扁产量居全国第一位。我省还是人造板生产大省,全省现有速生丰产林和工业原料林500多万亩,人造板企业2550家,人造板年产量1100多万立方米,生产规模位居全国前列。全省现有花卉面积32万亩。全省初步建成了“五片两带”外向型果品基地及六大速生丰产林和工业原料林基地;重点培育了保定天丰、辛集天华、泊头东方、冀州华林、衡水金光、曲周赛博等20多个流通型、加工型林果龙头企业;着力打造了文安、正定等四大人造板加工企业集群。花卉、种苗、蚕桑、森林旅游、野生动物养殖等产业也得到快速发展。据不完全统计,全省靠林果及相关产业人均收入3000元以上的村1200多个,通过发展林果业实现小康的人口占农业总人口的近1/5。

  ---森林资源保护全面加强。总投资达1.85亿元的森林防火基础设施项目建设,初步建成了覆盖全省的森林防火预测预报、监测了望、指挥调度和组织队伍四大体系。2006年省政府进一步加大了森林防火投入,筹集资金1300多万元,用于改善重点火险区防扑火装备水平,加强了各级森林公安和专业扑火队伍建设,使全省森林防火综合保障能力明显提升。“十五”以来全省没有发大的森林火灾,森林火灾受害率控制在0.3‰以下。启动实施了林业有害生物预防基础设施建设项目,全省林木有害生物防治率达80%以上,成灾率控制在5‰以下。

  ---林业科技与教育蓬勃开展。“十五”以来,全省共取得林业科研成果35项。制订、修订省级林业地方标准108项,已发布实施52项,完成审定56项。建立科技示范点1000多处,示范面积15万公顷。建立国家级林业技术示范区1个,科技兴林示范县2个,科技兴林示范林场1个,林业标准化示范县2个,省级科技示范县3个,林业标准化示范县5个,高科技示范园区5个。全省有8家林业科研机构,1391家林业科技推广机构,35家林业质量技术监督检验机构,2123个民办林业科技组织,初步形成了集林业科研与开发、科技推广与服务、标准制订与质量监督于一体的林业科技体系。全省建有1个省级林业教育培训基地,有3所高等院校设有林业及相关(近)专业,1所职业技术学院设林业学科,7所中等职业技术学校,有关键岗位培训单位3个,林业职业技能鉴定站1个。

  ---林业机构与队伍不断壮大。全省林业系统从业人员总数为23754人,林业管理部门分省、市、县三级管理。省级管理机构河北省林业局为正厅级;11个设区市都单独设有林业局;172个县级管理机构为县林业局或农林局(农委、农办等)。全省共有国有林场131个,国有苗圃175个。全省拥有林业执法人员约3100人。设林政管理机构174个;林业公安机构131个,林区治安派出所79个;森林植物检疫机构150个,其中省级1个,市级11个,县级138个。全省共有基层林业站1425个,职工4668人。

  ---林业国际合作日益深化。我省已与德国、日本、比利时、香港等国家和地区以及世界粮食计划署、世界银行等国际组织建立了林业交流与合作渠道,争取并实施了德援造林项目、日本小渊基金造林项目、WFP/中国2811平山防护林工程项目、中日共建“21世纪中国首都圈环境保护示范基地”项目、比利时东佛兰德省造林实验项目、香港嘉道理慈善机构赠款项目等工程项目。先后实施利用世界银行贷款造林项目4个,造林总规模16万公顷,项目总投资5.6亿元人民币,涉及全省9个市的66个项目县级单位;利用德国政府无偿援助造林项目2个,造林总规模5.7万公顷,项目总投资2300万马克,涉及全省2个市的8个项目县级单位;利用中日民间绿化合作基金无偿援助造林项目3个,项目区涉及两个市、两个项目县(区)级单位,造林总规模573.7公顷,日方援款共计5696.5万日元。

  三、林业发展前景

  ---总体构想:以科学发展观为统领,全面贯彻落实中共中央、国务院《关于加快林业发展的决定》和中共河北省委、河北省人民政府《关于推进林业跨越式发展的决定》精神,全面实施以生态建设为主的林业发展战略,加速推进传统林业向现代林业的转变,统筹林业生态建设和产业发展两大体系,深化体制改革,强化科技创新,加强科学管理,转变增长方式,大力提高林业发展的质量和效益,为全面建设小康社会和建设沿海经济社会发展强省做出新的贡献。

  ---战略目标:到2010年,全省有林地面积增加到7400万亩,森林覆盖率提高到26%,林业产业总产值达到600亿元,生态状况明显改善,林业产业结构趋于合理;到2020年,全省有林地面积增加到8500万亩,森林覆盖率达到30%,其中山区、丘陵、坝上及平原地区森林覆盖率分别达到50%、30%、20%和12%,城镇建成区绿化覆盖率达到35%,村庄绿化覆盖率达到30%;林业产业总产值达到1000亿元。建立起比较完备的森林生态体系和比较发达的林业产业体系,基本建成山川秀美的绿色河北。

 

Hebei Province, Beijing and Tianjin is located around across temperate and warm temperate zone, is a temperate and warm temperate continental monsoon climate, with hot rainy season, with four distinct seasons, the annual precipitation is 340-800 mm. The province plateau, mountains, plains and complete the three landscape types, the total land area of 187,000 square kilometers, accounting for 1.96% of the total area. Jurisdiction over 11 cities, 138 counties, with a total population of 66.74 million people. Hebei Forestry is a set of forestry, fruit trees, flowers, sericulture, forestry, sustainable forestry and tourism as an integrated industry. The end of 2005, the province's forest land area of 8,581,364 hectares (12872 acres), accounting for the province's total land area of 45.72%. Forest area of 4,341,258 hectares (6512 acres), forest coverage is 23.25% and the stumpage, the total stock volume of 102.26 million cubic meters. In 2006, the forestry industry output value reached 48.3 billion yuan.

1, the Forestry Development History

Before 1949, virtually destroyed the forest in Hebei Province, only remnants of 788 million mu of natural secondary forest, forest coverage rate is only 2.8%, one of the provinces nationwide Shaolin; 1949 to 1966, is the Hebei forestry recovery, adjustment stage the province to increase forest area 1017 mu, the forest coverage increased by 3.6 percentage points; 1967 to 1978, is the Hebei forestry construction stage of development during difficult times. The province's forest area increased 920 ha, forest cover increased by 3.3 percentage points; in 1978, after the Third Plenum of the Eleventh Party, Hebei forestry into the revitalization of the period. The province's eco-forestry project construction and fruit bases for the implementation of the project management, artificial afforestation to enter a new phase of afforestation projects. "Tenth Five-Year" period, the largest investment into the province's forestry construction, the largest, fastest and best quality of development. Of forestry development environment was further optimized, the provincial party committee, the provincial government made a "leap-forward development on promoting forestry decision," proposed "to build a green screen for Beijing and Tianjin, Hebei, beautiful mountains and rivers and recycling," the overall objective of forestry development, the provincial People's Congress issued the " Hebei province wide voluntary tree-planting Regulations "," Forest Conservation Ordinance, Hebei Province, "and many other local forestry laws and regulations; the provincial government formulated the" Implementation Measures Forest Fire Prevention, Hebei Province, "and" fruit, Hebei province construction planning "," Hebei Province, Lin plate ( paper) and the integration of planning "," green channel in Hebei construction plan "and a number of planning. Municipalities, county party committees and governments to work in forestry for the improvement of ecological environment and enrich the county's basic task, improve policy, increase investment, the province has created a favorable environment for the development of forestry.

Second, forestry construction achievements

--- Ecological building steadily. Six of forestry projects and the State are connected, start the implementation of the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source control, forest, Three-North Shelterbelt, Taihang Mountain greening, green channel, coastal protection forest and a number of key forestry projects. Adhere to the principle of forestry Quanshehuiban extensive voluntary tree-planting, departments, green, and vigorously develop the private afforestation. "15" since the province's average annual planting more than 500 million mu, the implementation of closed forest more than 2000 mu. The province's forest coverage rate than the "95" not by nearly 4 percentage points; desertified land area of 143 mu less than in 1999, is the National desertified land to reduce the most obvious of the four provinces. In recent years, focusing on improving the ecological environment, population centers, and vigorously promote the eco-culture, expand the social impact of forestry, the afforestation of the focus from remote mountainous areas and the rural to the urban extension, according to people-oriented, eco-green concept of priority, and vigorously promote the city forest construction and achieved remarkable results. Province the trend of ecological deterioration in some areas have been alleviated, the ecological environment is improving.

--- Fruit industry developed rapidly. Province is the fruit-producing provinces, the existing fruit trees, an area of more than 2300 mu, annual output of more than 90 billion kilograms of fruit, size and yield rank second in the country, including pear, jujube, chestnut, persimmon, Xingbian production in the nation first. Province or the province of wood-based panel production in the province of existing plantation and industrial raw material forest more than 500 million mu of wood-based panel enterprise 2550, annual output of more than 1100 million cubic meters of wood-based panels, the scale of production among the nation's. An area of 32 hectares of existing floral province. Preliminarily established the province of "5 2 with" export-oriented bases and six fruit plantation and industrial raw material forest base; focus on cultivating the Baoding Tianwei Feng, Xinji Tian-hua, Botou East, Jizhou Hualin, Hengshui golden light, Qu more than 20 weeks cyber-circulation type, leading fruit processing enterprises; an effort to create a text security, and positive-definite four major wood-based panel processing enterprise clusters. Flowers, seeds, sericulture, forest tourism, wildlife and farming industries also developed rapidly. According to incomplete statistics, the province's fruit and related industries rely on per capita income of 3,000 yuan or more than 1,200 villages, through the development of fruit industry, the agricultural population to achieve well-off society of the total population of nearly 1 / 5.

--- Overall strengthening of forest resources protection. A total investment of 185 million forest fire prevention infrastructure projects, initially forming a province-wide forest fire forecasting, monitoring, observation, and command system for scheduling and organization of the four teams. In 2006 the provincial government to further increase the forest fire prevention inputs, to raise funds more than 1,300 million for the improvement of key anti-fire fighting equipment, fire district levels, strengthen security and professionalism at all levels of forest fire fighting team-building to enable the province's forest fire prevention Comprehensive support capacity improved significantly. "15" has not issued the province's major forest fires, forest fires affected the rate controlled below 0.3 ‰. Start the implementation of the forest pest prevention infrastructure construction projects, the province's forest pest control rate of 80%, and disaster control the rate of below 5 ‰.

--- Forestry science and technology and education vigorously carried out. "15" since the province's forestry scientific research a total of 35. The formulation, revision provincial forestry 108 local standards have been promulgated and implemented 52 to complete the validation 56. The establishment of science and technology in various demonstration sites 1000, demonstration area of 15 million hectares. The establishment of national forestry technology demonstration zone 1, science and technology demonstration counties Lin 2, science and technology demonstration forest a forest, forestry standardization demonstration counties two, three provincial-level scientific and technological demonstration counties, and forestry demonstration counties and 5 standards, high-tech Demonstration Zone 5. The province has eight forestry research institutes, the 1391 forestry science and technology promotion agencies, 35 Quality and Technical Supervision, Inspection and forestry agencies, private forestry science and technology organizations, 2123, initially formed a set of forestry research and development, science and technology promotion and service, standard setting and quality Supervision of forestry science and technology in one system. Across the province built a provincial-level forestry education and training base, there are three institutions of higher learning with forestry and related (nearly) professional, vocational and technical college set up a forestry disciplines, seven secondary vocational technical schools, there are key positions in the training units 3, forestry Occupational Skill Testing Authority 1.

--- Forestry sector and has constantly increased. The total number of employees in the province's forestry systems 23754 people, forest management sub-provincial, municipal, and county levels management. The provincial regulatory body for the department director level, Hebei Province Forestry Bureau; 11 municipalities and districts have set up a separate forestry; 172 county-level governing body for the County Bureau of Forestry or Agriculture and Forestry Bureau (COAG, agricultural office, etc.). Province's total of 131 state-owned forest farms, state-owned nursery 175. Forest law enforcement officers across the province has about 3,100 people. Based forestry administration agency 174; forest public security authorities in 131, forest law and order police station 79; forest plant quarantine bodies 150, of which a provincial, municipal 11, county 138. The province's total primary forestry stations 1425, employees 4668 people.

--- Deepening international cooperation in forestry. Our province has been with Germany, Japan, Belgium, Hong Kong and other countries and regions, as well as the World Food Program, the World Bank and other international organizations have established channels of exchange and cooperation in forestry, to strive for and implemented a German aid afforestation projects, the Japanese Obuchi fund afforestation projects, WFP / China 2811 Hirayama shelter projects, Sino-Japanese build a "21st Century China Metropolitan Environmental Protection Demonstration Base" project, the Belgian province of East Flanders afforestation pilot project, the Hong Kong Kadoorie Charitable Organization grants projects projects. Has implemented the use of World Bank loan for afforestation projects 4, the total size of 160,000 hectares planted a total project spend 5.6 billion yuan, the province's nine cities involved in 66 projects county-level units; the use of the German government aid for afforestation projects 2, the total size of 57,000 hectares afforestation project total investment of 23 million marks, involving the city of the province's two county-level units in eight projects; the use of the Sino-Japanese non-governmental green Cooperation Fund in aid for afforestation project 3, the project area involves two cities, two project county (district) level units, the total size of 573.7 hectares for afforestation, the Japanese aid has a total of ¥ 56,965,000.

Third, the prospects for forestry development

--- Overall concept: the scientific development concept as a guide, fully implement the CPC Central Committee and State Council's "decision on Accelerating the Development of Forestry" and the CPC Hebei Provincial Committee, Hebei Province People's Government "by leaps and bounds on promoting the development of forestry decision" the spirit of the full implementation of the forestry ecological construction as the dominant development strategy to accelerate the traditional forestry to modern forestry, changes in co-ordination of forestry ecological construction and industrial development are major systems, deepen structural reforms, strengthening scientific and technological innovation, strengthen scientific management, changing the mode of growth, vigorously to improve the quality and effectiveness of forestry development for the comprehensive construction well-off society and building economic and social development in the coastal province to make new contributions.

--- Strategic Objective: By 2010, the province's forest area increased to 7400 mu, the forest coverage rate to 26%, forestry industry gross output value of 600 billion yuan, significantly improved the ecological conditions, forestry and rationalize the industrial structure; By 2020, the province's forest area increased to 8500 mu, the forest coverage rate reached 30%, including mountains, hills, plains dam and the forest coverage rate reached 50%, respectively, 30%, 20% and 12% in urban areas built-up area green coverage rate reached 35%, the village green coverage rate reached 30%; forestry industry output value reached 100 billion yuan. To establish a relatively complete forestry ecological system and a relatively developed forestry industrial system, the basic build beautiful green mountains and rivers, Hebei.

 

   

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