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曲阳县

 
曲阳县概况 行政区划 历史沿革 曲阳县地图 地理位置
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党城乡                

   曲阳位于华北平原西部,太行山东麓,处在发展中的京、津、保、唐大北京经济区的保定市境内。全县有 14 个乡, 4 个镇,总面积 1084.6 平方公里,人口 54 万。
   曲阳历史悠久,因地处古北岳恒山(今大茂山)弯曲的阳面而得名。秦(公元前 221 年 - 前 207 年)统一六国后,分天下为 36 郡,始置曲阳县,属巨鹿郡,距今已有 2000 多年的历史。元朝(公元 1271 年 -1368 年)曾一度将曲阳提升为恒州,故曲阳也有“恒州”之称。
   曲阳有着深厚的文化底蕴,据位于县城北部的“灵山溶洞”等处发掘考证,早在几十万年前,这里就由华夏猿人繁衍生息。在五、六千年前的仰韶文化时期,氏族部落已在这里出现。到商周(公元前 17 世纪 - 前 221 年)时期,县城西北部已出现村落。源远流长的历史积淀孕育出了名垂青史的蔺相如、杜弼、王安中等多位宰相,李左车、李进、邸氏四兄弟等三十多位元帅、将军,黄石公、杜台卿、杨琼等几十名哲学家、史学家、军事家、战略家和雕刻艺术家。千百年来,蔺相如为国为民、忍辱负重,“曲阳鬼”牺牲自己、救人危难,王安中为政清廉、惩治腐败,杨琼建设国家、敬业拼搏的高风亮节和优秀品德被燕赵儿女继承和发扬,,也铸就了曲阳人的精神和灵魂。
     曲阳之享有盛名,更因她创造了灿烂的石雕文化。相传是张良之师 -- ---- 与鬼谷子齐名的黄石公著下了《雕刻天书》,才有人在黄山上创习石木雕刻。到西汉(公元前 206 年 – 公元 25 年)时期雕刻已盛,被汉武帝盛赞为“雕刻之乡”。从此,曲阳石雕步入辉煌,技艺日趋精湛,雕刻艺人辈出。元朝时期著名雕刻大师杨琼雕刻的“一狮一鼎”被元世祖忽必烈称为绝艺。清(公元 1644 – 1911 年)末艺人的雕刻“仙鹤”、“干枝梅”一举在巴拿马国际艺术博览会上荣获第二名,更使曲阳石雕声名鹊起。从云冈石窟、乐山大佛、敦煌石窟、五台山佛像至阿房宫、故宫、圆明园、颐和园及天安门前的金水桥,到人民大会堂、人民英雄纪念碑、毛主席纪念堂等建筑,处处都留下了曲阳人的雕刻艺术。当代的曲阳石雕更是誉满海内外。 1986 年中共中央总书记胡耀邦到曲阳视察时,欣然挥毫题辞“雕刻之乡”,进一步促进了曲阳雕刻业的发展。曲阳的雕刻似一条闪耀着一代代艺人智慧之光的艺术长河,从古至今,奔流不息。
     曲阳在我国陶瓷发展史上占有重要地位。早在仰韶文化时期,曲阳就出现了陶器,至商周时期制陶已获很大发展。到隋朝(公元 581 年 – 618 年)曲阳开始烧制粗瓷,至唐代(公元 618 年 – 907 年)便有白瓷生产,到北宋(公元 969 年 – 1127 年)时期达到鼎盛,是著名的宋代五大官窑之一定窑所在地。定窑的瓷器在海内外有极大的影响。尤以白瓷胎质洁白细腻,釉色匀净,薄而坚硬名列陶瓷之冠。定窑的花瓷更以装饰题材丰富多彩,刻花手法多种多样而著称。宋代大文学家苏东坡曾著“潞公煎茶学西蜀,定州花瓷琢红玉”的诗句,赞美定瓷的风采。当时的定瓷,除供朝廷御用外,还大量出口到朝鲜半岛、日本、东南亚、印度、波斯、土耳其和非洲。至今在大英博物馆里,古定瓷还被作为艺术收藏品收藏。现故宫博物院也收藏有定瓷的珍宝“孩儿枕”等。定瓷在元代毁于战乱,大部分工匠南下谋生,为后来景德镇陶瓷的发展做出了重大贡献。 20 世纪 70 年代,在周恩来总理的直接关怀下,定窑又恢复了新生。
     曲阳资源丰富,物华天宝。境内有汉白玉、大理石、花岗岩、陶土、云母、煤炭、石灰石等二十多种矿产品。其中大理石储量 3.58 亿立方米,石灰石储量 150 亿立方米,煤炭储量 1.5 亿吨。曲阳水利资源丰富,有王快、西大洋两座大型水库和十多座中小型水库,常年库容水量 23 亿立方米,可利用水面积 2600 多万平方米,宜养鱼水面  2660 多公顷。曲阳既有山地又有平原,特别适合发展畜牧业和绿色种植业。独特的自然条件,使曲阳成为全国水果百强县之一,种植红枣近 6600 多公顷,年产 1500 多万公斤,种植梨树 5200 多公顷,长年产量达 5000 万公斤,是外贸出口“河北鸭梨”的主要产地之一。
     曲阳文物众多,风景如画,真山真水,别有洞天,旅游资源十分丰富。古时五岳之一的北岳恒山就在曲阳县。县城内北魏( 386-534 )年间始建的北岳庙,一直就是历代帝王祭祀北岳庙山神的场所。庙内东西北壁有唐代画圣吴道子仅存于世的高 8 米、长 18 米巨幅壁画,由于采用了沥粉贴金技法画成,历经沧桑仍光彩照人。庙内碑碣林立,文物荟萃,既有秦始皇、汉武帝、魏文帝、隋炀帝、唐太宗、朱元璋及康熙皇帝到曲阳朝拜恒山的碑刻,又有苏东坡的书法真迹。 160 余通自南北朝、北魏、北齐、唐、宋、元、明、清到民国时期的碑刻,既是研究我国古代祭祀文化及官制设置、地区区划的历史资料,又是一座书法艺术的宝库。此外,国家级文物保护单位定窑遗址和千佛堂钓鱼台、仰韶文化遗址、蔺相如墓、贾岛洞、黄石公祠、通天河、孟良河、莲花汪、狗塔坡、石虎夜光、滴水悬空、燕南奇胜等名胜古迹,作为历史的见证,在无声的讲述着这块古老的土地上所发生的往事。
     曲阳又是一个革命老区,早在 20 世纪 20 年代初就出现了中共党员彭桂生兄弟,在北方协助李大钊传播共产主义。县内抗战前就建立了共产党组织。在抗战时期,曾涌现出了“麻雀战”的创始人 - 全国民兵战斗英雄李殿冰、抗日民族英雄狼牙山五壮士之一葛振林等英雄人物。更有5500 多名曲阳儿女在抗战中英勇献身,他们用血肉之躯为曲阳革命史谱写了光辉灿烂的篇章,赢得了“晋察冀边区抗日模范县”的光荣称号。
     新中国成立后,伴随着社会主义祖国波澜壮阔的前进历程,曲阳人民经过 50 多年特别是改革开放30年的团结奋斗,使曲阳的建设事业取得了巨大成就。尤其是近年来,县委、县政府在“学理论、转观念、保稳定、塑形象、抓开放、促发展”方针的指引下,全面贯彻落实科学发展观,大力推进“实力曲阳、文化曲阳、和谐曲阳”建设,使曲阳经济社会发展呈现出了蓬勃生机。

 

 Quyang is located in the western North China Plain, the Taihang Mountains Dong Lu, in the development of Beijing, Tianjin, Paul, Tang Big Beijing Economic Zone in Baoding. The county has 14 townships, 4 towns, with a total area of 1084.6 square kilometers, population 540,000.
Quyang a long history, the area was the ancient Beiyue Hengshan (now big musan) Bending of the yang side is named. Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 207 BC) Tongyiliuguo, the sub-world of 36-gun before Quyang home belongs to Julu County, dating back more than 2,000 years of history. Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271 -1368 years) once the Quyang constant state of upgrade, so Quyang is also a "constant state" called.
Quyang has a deep cultural heritage, according to the county seat is located in the northern part of "Soul Mountain cave", etc. to explore research, as early as a few hundred thousand years ago, where the ape-man from China to live and reproduce. In five, Liu Qiannian ago Yangshao period, tribes have been here. To the Shang and Zhou (17th century BC - 221 BC) period, the county villages in the north-west has emerged. Long history of accumulation bred out of place in history of Lin Hsiang-ju, Dubi, Wang moderate number of prime minister, Li Zuo vehicles, Li Jin, Di's four brothers were more than 30 marshals, generals, Huangshi Gong, Taiwan Qing Du, Qiong Yang and so few 10 philosophers, historians, military strategist, strategist and sculpture artists. For thousands of years, Lin Hsiang-ju for the country people, bite the bullet, "Quyang ghost" sacrifice themselves to save distress, Wang for the government honest, and punish corruption, Qiong Yang nation-building, dedicated hard work of the sharp sense of integrity and good moral character has been Yanzhao children to inherit and carry forward the ,, has also forged Quyang the human spirit and soul.
Quyang's reputation, but also because she created a splendid stone culture. Legend has it that Zhang's division - ---- Guiguzi par with the Huangshi Gong forward to the next a "sculpture Double Dutch" on the record only Huang Shan Xi in stone and wood carving. To the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25 years) during the carving has been sung, was the Han Emperor Wu praised as "carving town." Since then, Quyang stone into the brilliant, skills become increasingly sophisticated, sculpture artists forth in large numbers. Qiong Yang Yuan Dynasty famous sculptor carved out "a lion a tripod" is referred to as Jueyi of Kublai Khan. Qing (1644 - 1911) artist at the end of the sculpture "crane", "Mikie Mei" in one fell swoop at the Panama International Art Fair won the second place, more so Quyang carving a reputation. From the Yungang Grottoes, Leshan Giant Buddha, Dunhuang grottoes, statues to the A Fanggong Wutai Mountain, the Forbidden City, Summer Palace, Summer Palace and Tiananmen Square before the Golden Water Bridge, to the Great Hall of the People's Heroes Monument, Chairman Mao Memorial Hall and other buildings everywhere left Quyang people carving art. Quyang contemporary stone is famed at home and abroad. The CPC Central Committee General Secretary Hu Yaobang in 1986 to Quyang inspections, is pleased to brush apothegms "Hometown of carving" to further promote the Quyang carving industry. Quyang sculpture like a shining light of the wisdom of generations of artists the art of river, since ancient times, endless torrents.
Quyang the history of ceramics in China occupies an important position. As early as Yangshao culture period, Quyang appeared in pottery, ceramics from the Shang and Zhou periods have been great development. To the Sui Dynasty (AD 581 - 618 years) began to burn the crude pottery Quyang to the Tang Dynasty (AD 618 - 907 years) there were white porcelain production, to the Northern Song Dynasty (AD 969 - 1127 years) to reach its peak period, is Kilns in the Song Dynasty, one of five well-known Ding location. Ding porcelain, have a great impact at home and abroad. Particularly delicate white porcelain Taizhi, glaze Yun Jin, a thin hard ceramic ranked the highest. Ding's more to decorating theme Huaci colorful variety of texturing techniques known. Su Song had a great writer's book, "Lu komarowii Public Sencha school, Dingzhou Huaci Zhuo-Yu," poem, praise be porcelain style. Then fixed porcelain, in addition to the court of Queen, but also a large number of exports to the Korean Peninsula, Japan, Southeast Asia, India, Persia, Turkey and Africa. So far in the British Museum, the ancient porcelain is also scheduled as an art collection collection. National Palace Museum collection is also set porcelain treasures "Pseudostellaria pillow" and so on. Be destroyed in wars during the Yuan Dynasty porcelain, most of the artisans south to make a living, for the later development of Jingdezhen ceramics made a significant contribution. The 20th century, 70's, in the direct concern of Premier Zhou Enlai, Ding resumed a new life.
Quyang is rich in resources, Mut Wah Tianbao. Inside there are white marble, marble, granite, clay, mica, coal, limestone and so on more than 20 kinds of minerals. Reserves of 358 million cubic meters of which marble, limestone reserves of 15 billion cubic meters, coal reserves of 150 million tons. Quyang rich in water resources, there is Wangkuai, West Ocean Tower 2 large reservoirs and more than 10 small and medium sized reservoirs, annual capacity of 2.3 billion cubic meters of water can be used to water an area of more than 2,600 million square meters, should fish the water more than 2660 hectares. Quyang have both mountain plains, especially suitable for the development of animal husbandry and green-growing industry. The unique natural conditions make Quyang become the country's fruit, one hundred counties, planting jujube nearly over 6600 hectares, an annual output of more than 1500 million kilograms, planting pear trees over 5200 hectares, has a long annual output reached 50 million kilograms, is the foreign trade export "Hebei pear," one of the main origin.
Quyang artifacts in a picturesque, real mountain real water, Journey Into Amazing Caves, is very rich in tourism resources. Beiyue Hengshan, one of the ancient five mountains in Quyang. County within the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-534) years, the Northern yue fei's temple was built, has been the ancient imperial worship of God Beiyue Miaoshan place. The north wall of the temple there are things remaining the world the Tang Hua Sheng Wu Daozi height of 8 meters, 18 meters long and a huge mural, the use of techniques Lek powder laced with gold painted, after vicissitudes still radiant. Temple stele the proliferation of meta-objects, both the emperor, Han Wu Di, Wei Wendi, Emperor, Emperor Taizong, the emperor, and emperor worship to Quyang Hengshan the inscriptions, another Su's calligraphy authentic. 160 I pass from the Southern and Northern Dynasties, Northern Wei, Northern Qi Dynasty, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing to the Republican period of the inscriptions, ancient China is both a study of bureaucratic culture and worship settings, regional division of the historical data, but also a treasure house of calligraphic art. In addition, the national heritage sites and 1000 units Ding temple Diaoyutai, Yangshao sites, Lin Hsiang-ju tomb, Chia Tao Dong, Huang Shi Gongci, Tongtianhe, Meng-Liang River, Lotus Wang, dog thapho, tigers and luminous, drip vacant, Sheng Yan Nanci attractions such as the historical evidence, in a silent about a piece of ancient land occurred in past.
Quyang is also an old revolutionary base areas, as early as 20 early in the 20th century, the Chinese Communist Party members appeared PENG Gui Health brothers, in the north to help Li Dazhao spread communism. The county before the war on the establishment of the Communist Party organization. In the Anti-Japanese War, he emerged a "sparrow war" the founder of - the national militia, war hero Dian-ice, anti-Japanese national hero Langya Mountain, one of five heroes heroes such as Ge Zhenlin. More than 5500 children Quyang their lives heroically in the war, they used the flesh and blood for the revolution Quyang written a brilliant chapter in the history, won the "Cha-Ji Border Region Anti-Japanese model county" in the title of honor.
After the founding of New China, along with the advance of the socialist motherland and the magnificent history, Quyang people, especially after 50 years of reform and opening up 30 years of unity and struggle, so that the construction Quyang has made tremendous achievements. In particular, in recent years, the county, the county government in the "learning theory, change the concept, maintaining stability, plastic image, grasping and opening up, promoting development" principle, under the guidance of comprehensively implementing the scientific development concept, vigorously push forward the "strength Quyang, cultural Quyang, Harmony Quyang "building, so that Quyang economic and social development has shown a great vigor.

   

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