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 马福祥(1876—1936),字云亭,回族,世居临夏县韩集镇阳洼山,为马千龄四子。马福祥6岁人清真寺诵 经,8岁人私塾读“四书”、“左氏春秋”。清光绪十四年(1888),13岁的马福祥随兄马福禄到河州观看陕甘总督杨昌浚阅兵,回家后遂生习武从戎之心,乃随马福禄演习刀枪弓马,三年不废。光绪十六年(1890)完婚,娶双城乡绅女载德为妻,翌年与三兄马福寿一同参加武举考试。清光绪二十一年(1895)三月初八,循化撒拉、回、东乡、保安族等群众近万人在韩奴勒(撒拉族)率领下起义,清廷飞檄甘肃各地,准回族绅士招兵买马,“练士勇以资防卫”。马福祥与兄马福禄招募士勇200名,称“安宁军”,分步骑两营,马福禄任督带兼步兵管带,马福祥为骑兵管带,归河州镇总兵汤彦和节制。五月初五,河州循化义军猛攻河湟要隘积石关,马福祥兄弟率队往援,解其围。七月二十八日汤彦和军溃于双城堡,汤仅以身免,马福祥兄弟率残部拼死保护汤彦和窜逃甘南绕道进省城,得总督杨昌浚嘉许。起义军以马福祥兄弟“助官军”,烧其“阳洼山住宅,以及亲族庐舍荡然无存”。光绪二十一年(1895)河湟、海固起义渐成燎原之势,清廷急调新疆喀什噶尔提督董福祥督办甘肃军务,马福祥兄弟率队配合,与马采哥战于河州城(今临夏)外围,手刃马采哥,河州围解,董福祥赞其兄弟“真良将也”。授马福禄记名总兵职,并将“安宁军”编人简练军。光绪二十二年(1896)马福祥赴省参加武举考试,以乡试第二名考中武举人。

光绪二十三年(1897)春,义和团起,马福禄、马福祥随董福祥进京,驻防蓟州。光绪二十五年(1899)六月马福祥统率马步七营,驻防山海关。八国联军从天津进攻北京,马福祥兄弟偕汉中镇总兵姚旺等,同时有义和团配合阻击,在廊坊车站合围侵略军。马福祥兄弟令骑兵下马设伏,步兵两翼包抄,敌近即放枪,敌人死伤甚众。马福祥兄弟“挥短兵闯入敌阵,喋血相搏”。敌人乘火车逃跑。八月十三日,侵略军抵正阳门,马福祥兄弟率部力战,马福禄阵亡,马福祥统率余部。八月二十四日京城失陷,慈禧挟光绪帝西逃,马福祥随驾扈从至西安,担任宫廷警卫。光绪二十六年(1900)马福祥与慈禧近侍太监张兰德结为金兰,九月清廷屈辱签订《辛丑条约》,两宫回京。马福祥随驾护送,慈禧、光绪以马福祥“在京有战功,沿途宿卫,亦著劳谨”,“著加恩,遇缺尽先即补”。光绪二十七年(1901),补为甘肃靖远协副将,奉命回靖远驻防。在此期间,马福祥延请当地名举人高炳辰教渎侄马鸿宾、子马鸿逵。自己也博览群书,摹习名人法帖,其书法如人,谨守法度,刚劲有力。

光绪二十九年(1903)马福祥调任甘肃庄浪协镇守使,光绪三十年(1904),马福祥调任陕甘督标中协。光绪三十一年(1905)升任西宁镇总兵,不久又兼阿尔泰护军使。清宣统元年(1909)升允将部分新军编制改编为常备军,共分马步四标,马福祥任步兵第二标标统。闰二月,马福祥兼代巴里坤镇总兵。是年冬,长庚任陕甘总督,将常备军改为巡防队,马福祥任西路巡防统领,驻防兰州。与彭英甲共同发起创办“光明火柴有限股份公司”。武昌起义后,陕甘响应,相继爆发革命,陕甘总督长庚命马福祥募兵攻陕,马福祥以“甘民穷苦,不任兵革”为辞,按兵不动。清帝退位,马福祥联名通电承认共和,任甘肃临时议会议员。民国元年(1912)4月,甘肃临时都督赵惟熙与彭英甲争权构衅,几至交火。马福祥不顾个人安危,只身人城,以“军队乃保护甘肃治安者,非都督辈纵酒任气之物”等语晓以利害,申明大义,干戈遂息,兰州得免蹂躏,由是得“善于劝解”之名。同年袁世凯政府任命马福祥为阿尔泰护军使,马福祥不愿离甘,未就任。5月又任命马福祥为西宁镇总兵,但马安良早有占据青海之心,遂极力反对马福祥任西宁镇总兵,7月14日袁世凯政府复令马福祥以西宁镇总兵兼署西宁办事大臣,马福祥仍未莅任。8月21日袁世凯政府任马福祥为宁夏镇总兵,宁夏得黄河灌溉之利,素称“塞上江南”,马福祥即率“昭武军”十三营计2500余人赴任。就任不久,与宁夏满营将军常连、阿拉善旗札萨克王爷塔旺札布结为异姓弟兄。辛亥革命后,蒙古王德尼玛(戒工活佛)和韩昌率蒙兵数百人,在两狼山扎营与民国政府军队作战两年之久。袁世凯派马福祥和塔王前去说和,经塔王总管班久以身作保,王德尼玛到五原河中船上会见马福祥,被马福祥设计拿获,解送北京。袁世凯以马福祥“智勇兼备”,特改宁夏镇总兵为宁夏护军使,节制阿拉善、乌审、鄂托克三旗,授陆军中将衔,授二等文虎章。并亲自手书“护闱春泳”条幅,为马福祥母亲祝寿以拉拢马福祥。马福祥在此期间阻白朗于陇东,败卢占魁主力于惠得城,剿高士秀、达尔六吉,地方逐渐安宁。民国七年(1918)起马福祥在宁夏各县倡办回民小学59所,其中高级小学10所,初级小学49所,在校学生1230人。民国八年(1919)秋创办蒙回师范,为解决办学经费,带头捐银1500两。在导河(今临夏)捐款创办小学5所,共有学生500多人。他先后捐款修建和扶持上海回文师范、敦化小学、陕西女子清真小学,倡导女子教育。为规兴教育先后捐白洋10万元。主修《朔方道志》32卷,合捐修缮宁夏银川城南门城楼、四鼓楼、财神楼和北城楼,捐资刊印《大化总归》、《四典会要》等以及《环球名人德育宝鉴》、《昭元秘诀》、《黄石公素书》、《军箴》等古籍,并题签作序,出版发行。

民国九年(1920)7月直皖战争起,马福祥通电拥直。皖军败,甘人乘机驱逐皖系甘肃都督张广建,提出“甘人治甘”口号,马福祥约同马麒等甘肃各镇发表声明,张广建被迫离甘,北京政府意属马福祥主甘,但因各镇反对,任马福祥为绥远都统,马福祥提议其侄马鸿宾任宁夏护军使。民国十三年(1924)12月孙中山北上,马福祥在北京谒见孙中山,表示“热忱欢迎中山先生领导起我们”。冯玉祥任西北边防督办,推荐马福祥任西北边防会办。民国十四年(1925)国民军进入甘肃,马福祥要求国民军收编其子侄部队。蒋介石任国民党军事委员会委员长后,马福祥赴南京晋见蒋介石,痛陈时弊,为蒋器重,被任以军事委员会委员。民国十七年(1928)春,国民党二中全会上,马福祥被选为中央执行候补委员和国民党政府委员,同年又任北平政治分会委员、开封政治分会委员、水利委员会委员、赈务委员会委员、编遣委员会委员、故宫博物院理事、蒙藏委员会副委员会长等职。蒋、冯、阎中原大战前,其子侄皆为冯玉祥部下,他奔走于三方之间,人称“和事佬”。民国十八年(1929)马福祥任青岛市市长,民国十九年(1930)调任安徽省政府主席。9月又调任蒙藏委员会委员长,在南京召开蒙藏各部王公参加的会议,提出消除各民族间的隔阂,发展各民族教育,开发蒙藏教育。民国二十年(1931)12月22日国民党四大第八次会议上,马福祥当选为国民党中央执行候补委员。在这期间,编纂出版《蒙藏状况》一书,全书共八章,七万余言。民国二十一年(1932)2月,因心脏病辞去蒙藏委员会委员长职务,到天津休养,将公务之余和患病期间手札整理成册,撰写家书《训诫子侄书》。5月,马鸿逵因督战不力,引起蒋介石不满,示意刘峙重兵包围马鸿逵总部驻地信阳。马福祥得报,救子心切,抱病赴汉口面见蒋介石说情。身染时疾,旧病复发,马鸿逵闻讯急赴汉口探视,遵医嘱转北平协和医院治疗。车至北平南郊琉璃河,忽然痰喘交加,8月19日不治去世,终年56岁。20日葬于北平阜成门外三里河。
 

 ma fu xiang (1876-1936), the word yunting, Hui, Yanghan ji zhen County resident Linxia depression Hill, for the 1000 Ma age of four sons. 6-year-old mosquema fu xiang people chanting, 8-year-old school who read "Four Books", "Spring and Autumnzuo shi." Emperor Guangxu years (1888), 13-year-old brother as Mama fu xiang Hezhou Fulu to watch the military parade Shaanxi and Gansu Governor YANG Chang-Chun, the martial arts to go home after the army was the heart of Health is Fulu exercises with swords and guns Ma Ma bow, do not waste three years. Sixteen years Guangxu (1890), married women married squire set Tak Twins marry next year and three brother joined Ma Fushou examination of martial art.er shi yi nian Emperor Guangxu (1895) eighth of the fourth month in March, Xunhua Salar, Hui, Dongxiang, and other massbao an zu nearly slave in Han Le (Salar), led the uprising, the Qing court to fly around the dispatch of Gansu, quasi-Hui gentleman recruiting, "training people for defense-yong." Fuluma fu xiang with the recruitment of disabled brother Yong Ma 200, referred to as the "peace forces", sub-bu qi the two camps, with horses and infantryren du Fulu pipe band, pipe bandma fu xiang for the cavalry, in thezhou zhen Riverzong bing Tony and restraint. May Fifth, Yijun Xunhua Hezhou Hehuang attack plot Shiguan strategic pass, ma fu xiang brotherswang yuan team, solve their Wai. Tony July 28 and forces collapse in the two-castle, who only free soup, the rate ofma fu xiang brothers Tony and the protection of remnants of desperate Gannancuan tao pass into the provincial capital, the Governor commended YANG Chang-Chun . Rebel toma fu xiang brothers "to helpguan jun", burning the "wa-yang Shan residential, as well as the family farmhouse gone." er shi yi nian Guangxu (1895) Hehuang, sealiao yuan zhi shi become solid uprising, the Qing court Viceroyji diao Kashgar in Xinjiang, Gansudong fu xiang handling military affairs, with his brotherma fu xiang with mining and Ma Columbia River warfare inzhou cheng (this Linxia) the outskirts of the Colombian miningshou ren Ma, Ho Wai state solution, dong fu xiang praise his brother "will be really good also." Ma Fuluzong bing anonymous delegate level, and "peace army" for the military were concise. Twenty-two years Guangxu (1896) ma fu xiang martial art to the province to participate in the examination to the second examination Examination Wu tree.

er shi san nian Guangxu (1897) spring, the Boxer, the horse Fulu, dong fu xiang withma fu xiang Beijing, ji zhou garrison. Twenty-five years Guangxu (1899) June 7ma fu xiang lead horse camp, garrison Shanhaiguan. Eight - Power Allied Forces to attack from Beijing, Tianjin, ma fu xiang brothers Hanzhong kaizong bing yao wang town and so on, with resistance at the same time the Boxers in Langfang invading army encircled the station.ma fu xiang brothersshe fu the cavalry horses, outflanking infantry wings, near the enemy that is firing, the enemy very many casualties.ma fu xiang brothers "short-swing into the position of the enemy soldiers, xiang bo Bounty." By train to escape enemies. August 13, zheng yang men invasion forces arrived, he led the troops in our battle brothersma fu xiang MA Fulu killed, more than led by the Department ofma fu xiang. Fall in Beijing August 24, she fled the West embracing Guangxu Emperor, Xi'anma fu xiang sui jia Hu cong to as palace guards.er shi liu nian Guangxu (1900) and empressma fu xiang eunuch Zhang Rand becamejin shi Jinlan, humiliating the Qing court in September to sign the "Xin Chou Treaty" liang gong returned to Beijing.sui jia escortma fu xiang, empress, Guangxu toma fu xiang "There are military exploits in Beijing, alongsu wei also would like the workers," "a Gahan, when that is lacking to make the first meeting." Twenty-seven years Guangxu (1901), meeting for the Association of Gansu Jingyuanfu jiang, was ordered back to jingyuanensis garrison. In the meantime, the tree ofma fu xiang inviting local highbing chen Services ditchma hong bin nephew, son of Mahong Lee. Own-read, copy celebrity study Fateh, the calligraphy, such as people, have held fast to Fadu, strong bold.

er shi jiu nian Guangxu (1903) was transferred to Gansuma fu xiang Zhuanglangzhen shou shi Association, Guangxu three decades (1904), was transferred to Shaanxi and Gansu Governorma fu xiang Association targets.san shi yi nian Guangxu (1905) was promoted to the town of Xiningzong bing, soon after the Altai and Hujun so. Xuantong year-ching (1909) or allowed to be part of the preparation of the New Army into the standing army, divided into four Mabuchi S, Sma fu xiang any standard infantry second EC. Run in February, and on behalf ofma fu xiang Barkolzong bing town. Is in the winter, Shaanxi and Gansu Governor Ren Chang will replace the standing army patrol teamma fu xiang lead Ren Road Guard, stationed in Lanzhou. Peng, co-sponsored with the founder of a second division, "joint-stock company matches bright." After the Wuchang Uprising, Shaanxi and Gansu in response, one after another outbreak of revolution, Shaanxi and Gansu Governorma fu xiang ordered recruitment attack Chang Shan, ma fu xiang to "poorgan min, not anybing ge" for speech, no action. Emperors of the Qing Dynasty to step down, a joint power to recognizema fu xiang Republican, he was appointed the provisional Parliament in Gansu. In the first year (1912) in April, the interim captaincy general of Gansu Hee and Peng Zhao second division but for the right to offer blood in sacrifice structure, to fire a few.ma fu xiang danger, were the city alone, with "the armed forces of law and order is the protection of Gansu, non-captaincy general term gas generationzong jiu objects "and other wordsxiao yi li hai, affirm the righteous cause, to resort to arms was interest, Lanzhou was torn free from is a" good persuasion, "the name. Yuan Shikai government-appointed the same year as the Altai Hujunma fu xiang so, do not want toma fu xiang from Gansu, not assumption.ma fu xiang appointed in May for the town of Xiningzong bing, Tajima Anliang had occupied the heart of Qinghai, was strongly opposed to anyma fu xiang the town of Xiningzong bing, July 14 madema fu xiang Yuan Shikai government complex to the town of Xining, Xiningjian shu actzong bing Secretary of State, Li ren not yetma fu xiang. August 21 Yuanma fu xiang the Government as the town ofzong bing Ningxia, Ningxia have the benefits of the Yellow River for irrigation, Su-called "Jiangnan Frontier," that is, the rate ofma fu xiang "zhao wu army" of 2500 more than 13 business people to his new post. Soon became, and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, General business often not even full, Alashan Wangyehzha sa ke flag toweryi xing brothers becamezha bu wang. After the Revolution, Mongolia Wangde ni ma (Living Buddha to quit work) and Han Chang Meng rate of several hundred soldiers in the camp with twolang shan fighting government troops in two years. Yuan Shikai sentma fu xiang and Wang went to that tower and, after a long time to banwang zong guan towers are secured, Wangde ni ma to five original riverma fu xiang board meeting wasma fu xiang designna huo, transfer to Beijing. Yuan Shikai toma fu xiang "both Zhi-yong," Special to the town in Ningxia Ningxiazong bing Hujun so, moderation Alashan, Wu-trial, E-tok three flags will be granted the title of the Army, granted the second chapter Wen-hu. And personally hand-written "Beach Spring retaining door to women's room" banner for a birthdayma fu xiang to drawma fu xiang mother. In the meantimema fu xiang Bainang resistance in Longdong defeated Lu Hui Zhan-Kui in a major city, destroy Gao show six Kyrgyzstan Darfur, local peace gradually. In seven years (1918) ma fu xiang from counties in the Ningxia Hui sponsors 59 primary schools, of which 10 upper primary, junior primary school 49 , 1230 students were in school. In eight years (1919) established the fall of Mongolia back to normal, in order to address school funding, to take the lead in twojuan yin 1500. Guided River (this Linxia) 5 primary founder contributions, a total of more than 500 students. He has contributed to build and support the palindrome Shanghai Normal, Dunhua Primary School, Shaanxi Muslim women's primary advocate for women's education. Hing Education for regulating hakuyosha has donated 100,000 yuan. Majoring in "Roadshuo fang Chi" 32 volumes, making a donation Yinchuan repair the South Gate tower, four Gulou, Wealth Building and the North tower, donor published "Dahua always", "four-Code will be to" as well as "Moral Universal Masters Po Kam", "Yuan Zhao secret "," Su-huang shi gong book "," Jun Zhao "and other books, and signed for the title sequence, published and distributed.

In the nine-year (1920) Anhui straight war in July, the electricity ownedma fu xiang straight. Anhui military defeat, Gan people the opportunity to expel the Wanxi captaincy general of Gansu Zhang Jian, the "rule of man Gan Gan" and about the samema fu xiang townsma Yee a statement such as Gansu, Zhang Jian was forced from Gansu, the Beijing government is intended toma fu xiang main Gan, but towns against any Suiyuanma fu xiang for both reunification and permanentma fu xiang proposed Ningxiaqi zhi Hujunma hong bin so. In thirteen years (1924) Sun Yat-sen in December northma fu xiang audience with Dr. Sun Yat-sen in Beijing, saying that "warmly welcomes the leadership of Dr. Sun Yat-sen from us." Ren Feng Yuxiang northwest border supervision and recommend anyma fu xiang will do the Northwest Frontier. In fourteen years (1925) into the national army, Gansu, ma fu xiang requested incorporation of its national army troopszi zhi. Military Commission of the Kuomintang of Chiang Kai-shek's office after the visit of Chiang Kai-shekma fu xiang fu nan jing, tong chen problems for Chiang importance was any military committee. In the seventeen years (1928) spring, the Second Plenary Session of the Kuomintang, ma fu xiang was elected alternate member of Central Executive and members of the Nationalist government, the same year, Beijing has the political branch of any member of the political branch of Kaifeng member Water Resources Commission, member of the Treasury Relief Committee, reorganize and discharge surplus personnel committee, the National Palace Museum, director of the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission Vice-long post. Jiang, Feng, Yan Central Plains before World War II, the Feng Yuxiangzi zhi are subordinates, he was running between the three, called the "peacemaker." In eighteen years (1929) ma fu xiang term mayor of Qingdao City, was nineteen years (1930) transferred to the President of the Anhui provincial government. Transferred in September and chairman of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission, Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs held in Nanjing to attend the meeting of kings and ministries, the elimination of barriers between the various ethnic groups, the development of the national education and development education for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs. In the two decades (1931) December 22 KMT four eighth meeting, ma fu xiang elected as an alternate member of the KMT Central Executive. During this period, the codification of the publication of "the situation of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs," a book, the book has eight chapters, more than 70,000 words. Iner shi yi nian (1932 ) in February, due to resign from the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission Chairman heart functions, the rest of Tianjin, will be more than civil servants and the prevalence of Letters collated into a book during the period, write a letter home "bookzi zhi reprimanded . "In May, Mahong Lee due to supervise operations ineffective, causing dissatisfaction with Chiang Kai-shek, LIU Zhi indicated a large number of troops surrounded the headquartershong Lee MA resident Xinyang.ma fu xiang have reported that anxious to save the child, ill Hankow to intercede to see the Chiang Kai-shek. When diseases are infected, relapse, Maji fu Hankow hearinghong Lee visit to Peking Union Medical College Hospital prescribed treatment. Liulihe car to the southern suburbs of Beijing, all of a suddentan chuan Cross, died Aug. 19 died at the age of 56. Buried on the 20th Fuchengmenwai Sanlihe Peking.
 

 

 

   

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